AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Memory

Elizabeth is taking a fill-in-the-blank pop quiz in her English class. What form of memory is she exercising while answering the questions?

Possible Answers:

Recognition 

Retention 

Storage 

Relearning 

Recall 

Correct answer:

Recall 

Explanation:

Much evidence has been uncovered for psychologists to suggest there being three ways to learning: recall, recognition, and relearning. These three forms of learning feedback into the persisted learning that makes up memory and together make up a way to measure retention (a process known as storage).

Recall is simply the retrieval of information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but was learned at a previous time. This is tested through a fill-in the blank tests, where the individual is challenged to recall information based on context. 

Example Question #11 : Memory

How does shallow processing affect encoding?

Possible Answers:

It allows complex level encoding 

It allows basic level encoding 

It allows encoding of only auditory stimuli

It allows encoding of only visual stimuli 

It allows for encoding based on the meaning of a word

Correct answer:

It allows basic level encoding 

Explanation:

There are different levels of processing, such as shallow processing and deep processing. The first refers to processing information at a shallow, or basic, level. This would entail encoding a word's letters or maybe even how a word sounds. Deep processing entails semantic encoding. This means encoding based on the meaning of a word. This more complex level of encoding allows for better retention. 

Example Question #11 : Memory

Of the given options, which form of learning does a multiple-choice test engage?

Possible Answers:

Encoding 

Storage

Relearning 

Recall 

Recognition 

Correct answer:

Recognition 

Explanation:

Memory is learning that has persisted over time, allowing information to be stored and retrieved. Much research has been undertaken to allow psychologists to outline three types of learning that aid in memory formation: recall, recognition and relearning. These three processes feedback and provide psychologists with a way to measure retention (storage) of information that has been encoded into the brain. 

Recognition is the process by which an individual can identify things that he or she has previously learned. In the case of a multiple-choice exam, the individual is provided with all potential answers to the question. It becomes a matter of being able to recognize which option best answers the question. 

Example Question #11 : Memory

Of the following options, which process of memory does studying for a cumulative final exam engage?

Possible Answers:

Retention 

Relearning 

Recall 

Recognition 

Storage

Correct answer:

Relearning 

Explanation:

Psychologists have suggested that there are three types of learning that aid in memory formation: recall, recognition and relearning. These three processes feedback and provide psychologists with a way to measure retention (storage) of information that has been encoded into the brain. 

Relearning is the process by which we learn something for the second time. This learning process often occurs faster than the first time. For instance, covering new information for a unit in math may be challenging at first, but after a few weeks when it's time to take a test on the entire unit, it may be easier to digest that previously covered concept that was so challenging. The same process is encountered when studying for a cumulative final. This final covers information from the beginning of the semester that may have easily been forgotten, but the information may be quickly relearned when revisiting it. 

It may seem that recall would be an appropriate answer, however, this process requires retrieving information not currently in one's conscious memory. For example, this is exhibited during a fill-in-the-blank test. Given that the question merely asks for the reviewing of information, this answer would be incorrect, as we do not know the format of the test. The same may be applied for recognition. This is the process by which one identifies concepts already learned. While this may also seem like an appropriate answer choice, it is not as it is a process well exhibited through multiple-choice tests. Given the four or five options provided as an answer to a question, using recognition will allow one to recognize the potentially correct answer to the question. These processes do not entertain the idea of studying or reacquiring information.

Example Question #11 : Memory

With regards to information-processing models for memory, what is the process during which information is retained?

Possible Answers:

Storage 

Encoding 

Retrieval 

Recognition 

Recall 

Correct answer:

Storage 

Explanation:

The information-processing models are analogies that compare human memory to a computer's operations. In doing so, this analogy breaks the human memory system into three parts: encoding, storage, and retrieval. 

Encoding is the first part of the processing. It is during this stage that the information gets into our brains. In terms of a computer, this would be when information is "encoded" into the hard drive. This process is followed by storage. As the term indicates, this is when information is retained. This is synonymous with retention, which is measured by recall, recognition and relearning. The third process to this model is retrieval. Much like when we command a computer to do something and it retrieves the information that's been stored, this is when we call the information back out from storage. 

Example Question #11 : Memory

In 1968, Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-phase model to explain memory-processing. According to their proposed model, to-be remembered information is first recorded as __________.

Possible Answers:

Sensory memory 

Encoding 

Long-term memory 

Working memory 

Short-term memory 

Correct answer:

Sensory memory 

Explanation:

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-phase model to explain the memory forming process. This included in order:

1. Recording to-be remembered information as sensory memory. This is when external events causes a sensory input (stimulus). It's this fleeting occurrence that will be processed as a sensory memory. 

2. Information is then processed into short-term memoryAt this time, the information is encoded into our brains through rehearsal

3. For future retrieval, information then moves into long-term memory.

This model has been updated since Atkinson and Shiffrin's time by other psychologists to now include working memory and automatic processing. Working memory is the middle ground for processing. It may be thought  to occur at the same time as short-term memory processing. At this time, information is merely actively (working) processed while short-term memory processes it to be sent to long-term memory. Automatic processing is the direct pathway by which external events are automatically processed into long-term memory.

 

Example Question #12 : Memory

In 1968, Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-phase model to explain memory-processing. According to their proposed model, once information is recorded as sensory memory, it is processed into __________ via rehearsal.

Possible Answers:

Working memory

Long-term memory 

Short-term memory 

Sensory input

Encoding 

Correct answer:

Short-term memory 

Explanation:

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-phase model to explain the memory forming process. This included in order:

1. Recording to-be remembered information as sensory memory. This is when external events causes a sensory input (stimulus). It's this fleeting occurrence that will be processed as a sensory memory. 

2. Information is then processed into short-term memory. At this time, the information is encoded into our brains through rehearsal

3. For future retrieval, information then moves into long-term memory.

This model has been updated since Atkinson and Shiffrin's time by other psychologists to now include working memory and automatic processing. Working memory is the middle ground for processing. It may be thought  to occur at the same time as short-term memory processing. At this time, information is merely actively (working) processed while short-term memory processes it to be sent to long-term memory. Automatic processing is the direct pathway by which external events are automatically processed into long-term memory.

 

Example Question #21 : Cognition

In 1968, Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-phase model to explain memory-processing. According to their proposed model, information will ultimately be processed into __________ for later retrieval. 

Possible Answers:

Long-term memory 

Short-term memory 

Sensory memory 

Automatic processing 

Working memory 

Correct answer:

Long-term memory 

Explanation:

Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed a three-phase model to explain the memory forming process. This included in order:

1. Recording to-be remembered information as sensory memory. This is when external events cause a sensory input (stimulus). It's this fleeting occurrence that will be processed as a sensory memory. 

2. Information is then processed into short-term memory. At this time, the information is encoded into our brains through rehearsal

3. For future retrieval, information then moves into long-term memory.

This model has been updated since Atkinson and Shiffrin's time by other psychologists to now include working memory and automatic processing. Working memory is the middle ground for processing. It may be thought  to occur at the same time as short-term memory processing. At this time, information is merely actively (working) processed while short-term memory processes it to be sent to long-term memory. Automatic processing is the direct pathway by which external events are automatically processed into long-term memory.

 

Example Question #21 : Memory

Researchers Alan Baddeley and colleagues challenged Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin's three-stage model for memory processing regarding sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. Their focus was on the active "desktop" of the brain responsible for taking new input and linking it to long-term memories. This middle process is known as __________.

Possible Answers:

Sensory memory 

Maintenance 

Short-term memory 

Working memory 

Rehearsal 

Correct answer:

Working memory 

Explanation:

Baddeley and colleagues disagreed with Shiffrin and Atkinson's idea about short-term memory. Shiffrin and Atkinson viewed short-term memory to be a brief "holding" shelf for information as it is passed along to long-term memory. Baddeley and colleagues discovered this to be incorrect. Short-term memory isn't just a temporary passing stage to hold information, but it is an active desktop where information is actively processed. This middle stage is responsible for linking incoming information with previously stored information. 

This added to Shiffrin and Atkinson's model for memory processing by replacing/combining the short-term memory stage with working memory. Here information from sensory memory is stored and processed by maintenance and rehearsal. Eventually the information will be ready to be encoded into long-term memory.

Example Question #21 : Memory

Given the following options, which is the best-described difference between declarative and non-declarative memories?

Possible Answers:

Declarative memories require implicit processing while non-declarative memories require explicit processing. 

Declarative memories require explicit processing while non-declarative memories require implicit processing.

Declarative memories require conscious processing while non-declarative memories require automatic processing.

Declarative memories require conscious processing while non-declarative memories require effortless processing. 

Declarative memories are part of the dual-track memory while non-declarative memories are part of the single-track memory. 

Correct answer:

Declarative memories require conscious processing while non-declarative memories require automatic processing.

Explanation:

Our minds operate on a two-track system; this is also known as dual-track memory. This system operates with us consciously processing information (effortful processing) while there is also information behind the scenes that is automatically processed into storage (automatic processing). 

Conscious processing occurs for declarative (explicit) memories. These are memories that we consciously aware of, such as facts and experiences we focus on. Automatic processing occurs for the experiences and occurrences we are not aware of. These memories are known as non-declarative, or implicit, memories. These memories skip our conscious encoding and go directly to storage.  

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