AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #596 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Substances such as morphine and heroin that produce euphoria, relaxation, anxiety reduction, and pain relief belong to which of the following drug classes?

Possible Answers:

Narcotics/opiates 

Hallucinogens

Depressants

Stimulants

Correct answer:

Narcotics/opiates 

Explanation:

Narcotics/opiates include morphine, heroin, and pain pills such as oxycontin. Narcotics are often used for pain relief in medicine, but are also commonly abused and used recreationally for their relaxation and pain relieving effects. 

Example Question #21 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Ted is prescribed a stimulant medication for his ADHD, which helps him stay focused and alert during the day. At first, the medication works well; however, over time, Ted notices that the medication is not working as well as it used to. He says that it feels like he is getting less of an effect even though he is taking the same amount as prescribed. Which of the following is Ted most likely experiencing? 

Possible Answers:

Psychological dependence

Withdrawal

The placebo effect

Tolerance

Correct answer:

Tolerance

Explanation:

Ted is most likely experiencing tolerance. Tolerance occurs over time when individuals take a drug regularly and their body starts to adapt to the presence of the drug. Over time, it needs more of a drug to achieve the same desired initial effect. Tolerance is a sign of physiological dependence. 

Example Question #22 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Long term negative health outcomes of heavy alcohol use include which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Stroke

Liver disease

All of these

Cancer

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Prolonged alcohol use is associated with many negative health outcomes including accidents, liver disease, malnutrition, brain damage, neurological disorders, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, ulcers, cancer, and birth defects. 

Example Question #601 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is considered a hallucinogenic drug?

Possible Answers:

Nicotine

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

Cocaine

Amphetamine

Correct answer:

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

Explanation:

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a hallucinogen, which means it alters the user's perception of reality and can cause psychotic symptoms. LSD use in particular can result in synesthesia, dissociation, and other hallucinogenic effects. Synesthesia is defined as experiencing one sensory experience through another sensory pathway (e.g. "seeing" music in terms of color). Contrastingly, amphetamine, cocaine, and nicotine are considered stimulants, because they speed up bodily processes. 

Example Question #602 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following drug combinations is most likely to be fatal?

Possible Answers:

Nicotine and hallucinogens

Alcohol and benzodiazepines

Alcohol and marijuana

Amphetamines and marijuana

Amphetamines and antidepressants

Correct answer:

Alcohol and benzodiazepines

Explanation:

Alcohol and benzodiazepines can be a potentially lethal combination. Benzodiazepines are psychotropic medications commonly prescribed for anxiety. Both drugs are nervous system depressants, and they have been known to have increased effects when taken together. Another significant side effect of combining alcohol and benzodiazepines is blackouts.

Example Question #603 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Bob has consumed a substance and he now has constricted pupils, is breathing slower, feels sense of relaxation, and is less alert. Based on his symptoms, which of the following substances has Bob most likely consumed?

Possible Answers:

Benzodiazepines 

Opiates

Alcohol

Cocaine

Marijuana

Correct answer:

Opiates

Explanation:

Consuming opiates can result in small pupils, slowed breathing, loss of alertness, dry mouth, itchy skin, nausea and vomiting. Opiates include heroin, morphine, codeine, and other prescription drugs. Consuming alcohol and benzodiazepines can result in delayed reaction time, impaired memory and judgement, and slurred speech. Consuming cocaine can cause euphoria, increased energy, and loss of appetite. Marijuana use can result in relaxation, dry mouth, increased appetite, and red eyes.

Example Question #21 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

A person that takes the same amount of a drug but experiences a diminished effect over time is experiencing...

Possible Answers:

Delusions

Tolerance 

Hallucinations

Delirium tremens

Withdrawal

Correct answer:

Tolerance 

Explanation:

Tolerance is a diminished response to a drug. It can involve less of an effect with the same amount of a drug, or needing more of a drug to have the same effect. Withdrawal is the physical and mental symptoms that can occur when a person stops using a drug. Delusions are false beliefs that contradict reality. Hallucinations are false sensory experiences, such as seeing or hearing things that are not actually there. Both delusions and hallucinations may occur in psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. Delirium tremens are a symptom of alcohol withdrawal that can involve hallucinations, shaking, and severe confusion. 

Example Question #1 : Cognition

Which of these most accurately describes the difference between iconic and echoic memory?

Possible Answers:

Iconic memory can be improved with selective attention; echoic memory cannot

Iconic memory deals with sensory information; echoic memory deals with factual information

Iconic memory is visual; echonic memory is auditory

Iconic memory deals with factual information; echoic memory deals with sensory information

Iconic memory is short-term; echoic memory is long-term

Correct answer:

Iconic memory is visual; echonic memory is auditory

Explanation:

Iconic and echoic memory are two forms of sensory memory, which momentarily stores information from our senses before it is encoded in short-term memory. Iconic memory is the storage of what we see, while echoic memory is the storage of what we hear. Both of these functions can be improved with selective attention.

Example Question #1 : Cognition

Which of these is an example of a type of implicit memory?

Possible Answers:

Autobiographical

Procedural

None of these

Semantic

Episodic

Correct answer:

Procedural

Explanation:

Implicit memory refers to memories that do not rely upon conscious recall activities. Procedural memory is the type of memory that we use to do everyday tasks like tying our shoes or riding a bike. These activities do not require our conscious awareness of our previous attempts.

Example Question #1 : Memory

Which of the following is an example of explicit memory?

Possible Answers:

Familiarity

Procedural memory

Priming

Semantic memory

Classical conditioning

Correct answer:

Semantic memory

Explanation:

Explicit memory refers to memories that can be consciously recalled. Semantic memory is memory about facts, like that Alaska is the largest state in the U.S. The other types of memory listed are types of implicit memory, which cannot be explicitly recalled.

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