AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #6 : Other Cognitive Principles

Which term refers to memory loss?

Possible Answers:

Lesion

Rexitrification

Damagia

Aphasia

Amnesia

Correct answer:

Amnesia

Explanation:

Amnesia refers to the loss of memory. One may suffer from retrograde (inability to remember past memories) or anterograde (inability to make new memories) amnesia, both of which are severely debilitating. 

Damagia and rexitrification are false terms that hold no significance in psychology. Aphasia refers to the inability to comprehend or create language. Lesions refer to damaged areas of the brain.

Example Question #7 : Other Cognitive Principles

A subject has sustained damage to Broca's area. Which area of his functioning will be impacted?

Possible Answers:

Interpreting pictures

Inability to form new memories

Understanding language

Producing speech

Poor gross motor skills

Correct answer:

Producing speech

Explanation:

Broca's area is heavily involved in the motor movements behind speech production. Damage to this area makes it extremely difficult or impossible to produce speech, but understanding other people's speech is not impacted. This condition is commonly known as Broca's aphasia or expressive aphasia.

Example Question #8 : Other Cognitive Principles

Which of the following processes is not controlled by the frontal lobe?

Possible Answers:

Memory

Hearing

Impulse inhibition

Language 

Problem solving

Correct answer:

Hearing

Explanation:

The frontal lobe is responsible for many important processes, including problem solving, certain aspects of producing and comprehending language, controlling one's impulses, and consolidating memories. The frontal lobe is not, however, involved in hearing, which mainly takes place in the parietal lobe.

Example Question #241 : Cognition And Consciousness

During which stage of development do humans have the greatest number of synapses?

Possible Answers:

Young Adulthood (18-30 years old)

Infancy

Prenatal

Late Adulthood (50-65 years old)

Adolescence

Correct answer:

Infancy

Explanation:

Humans have the greatest number of synapses in infancy, connecting around 86 billion neurons. As we age, synaptic pruning occurs and unused synapses are systematically eliminated.

Example Question #12 : Other Cognitive Principles

Which of the following is an example of functional fixedness?

Possible Answers:

Someone taking on risk to achieve a potential gain

Someone taking on risk to avoid a potential loss

Someone avoiding risk to achieve a potential gain

Being able to see how a bucket could act as a ladder when turned upside down

Not being able to see how a bucket could act as a step stool when turned upside down

Correct answer:

Not being able to see how a bucket could act as a step stool when turned upside down

Explanation:

Functional fixedness is the inability to see the different functions of an object (use as a step stool) other than its conventional use (bucket). 

The three answer choices about risks and losses/gains explain aspects of prospect theory (people take on risks when avoiding potential loss and avoid risks to achieve potential gain), rather than functional fixedness. Functional fixedness is a theory of creativity, whereas prospect theory is a explanation of decision-making.

Example Question #1102 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

A multiple-choice exam tests a student's __________ of subject material.

Possible Answers:

All of these

recall

None of these

relearning

recognition

Correct answer:

recognition

Explanation:

In multiple-choice exams, all the answers to a given question are provided; however, it is up to the exam-taker to be able to identify, or "recognize," the correct answer. Multiple-choice exams test an exam-taker's recognition of the subject material.

Example Question #1111 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

A fill-in-the-blank exam tests a student's __________ of subject material.

Possible Answers:

recall

None of these

All of these

relearning

recognition

Correct answer:

recall

Explanation:

In fill-in-the-blank exams, it is up to the exam-taker to be able to remember, or "recall," information learned in the past to be able to correctly answer questions. Fill-in-the-blank exams test an exam-taker's recall ability—how well they can correctly remember information without it being overtly presented to them.

Example Question #1112 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is not a symptom of a panic disorder?

Possible Answers:

Chest pain

Dizziness 

Intense feeling of dread

Nausea

Low blood pressure

Correct answer:

Low blood pressure

Explanation:

Panic disorders are quite common. During a panic attack, an individual will have a higher heart rate along with physiological symptoms that may make them feel physically ill. Fear of future anxiety attacks also may trigger worse symptoms.

Example Question #1113 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Cognitive neuroscience encompasses research in which of the following areas?

Possible Answers:

Neurology

Cognition

Computer science

Linguistics

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science that touches on cognitive psychology, neuroscience, computer science, psycholinguistics, and any area of research that is involved in the study of the connection between the brain and mental processes.

Example Question #171 : Cognition

Sam thinks he is a bad person. He does not think he has any purpose in the world. He also believes that there is nothing he can do in the future to make himself purposeful in life. This is an example of which of the following concepts?

Possible Answers:

Negative schema; externalizing

Neuropsychosocial paradigm; cognitive biases

Liable affect; errors in logic

Neuropsychosocial paradigm; negative triad

Negative schema; negative triad

Correct answer:

Negative schema; negative triad

Explanation:

Sam demonstrates a negative schema and more specifically, the negative triad. A negative schema is a perceptual set in which people view the world. Negative schemas can occur through tragedy, rejection, criticism, or a depressive atmosphere. Any of these factors can cause us to look at the world in a more negative way. The negative triad, consistent with a negative schema, includes a negative view of oneself, the world, and the future.

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