AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #41 : Memory

What term is used to describe long term memory that is often factual in nature?

Possible Answers:

Declarative

Episodic

Semantic

Rehearsed

Procedural

Correct answer:

Declarative

Explanation:

Declarative memory is also known as explicit memory. Declarative memory is a type of long term memory that can be recalled as facts of knowledge, usually in a verbatim manner. These types of memories can be consciously recalled.

Example Question #41 : Memory

New memories and the retrieval of old memories are localized to which structure in the brain?

Possible Answers:

Occipital Lobe

Cerebellum

Hippocampus

Amygdala

Wernicke's area

Correct answer:

Hippocampus

Explanation:

The hippocampus is a structure within the brain that encodes memories. When this structure is damaged it can lead to an inability to form and retrieve memories. The amygdala is the brain structure responsible for fear. The occipital lobe is responsible for processing visual input. Wernicke's area is important for speech and language. The cerebellum is responsible for movement and coordination.

Example Question #41 : Memory

Walter decides that he would like to ride a bicycle. He has not used a bicycle in twenty years and wonders if he will remember how to do so. To his surprise he easily remembers how to ride. What type of memory allows Walter to ride a bicycle after twenty years?

Possible Answers:

Eidetic memory

Episodic memory

Explicit memory

Implicit memory

Semantic memory

Correct answer:

Implicit memory

Explanation:

Implicit memory involves remembering how to complete tasks that do not require conscious effort. It is also sometimes called non-declarative memory. Remembering how to ride a bicycle or tie your shoes are examples of implicit memory. Explicit memory is memory for every day information. It is a conscious form of memory and requires effort. Semantic and episodic are forms of explicit memory. Semantic memory involves remembering specific facts, such as math formulas or the names of former presidents. Episodic memory refers to remembering past life events, such as your wedding day. Eidetic memory is also known as photographic memory and is a rare ability in some people to recall images and sounds after short exposure. 

Example Question #1051 : Ap Psychology

What is the name of the theory in linguistics that suggests that some rules of grammar are hard-wired into the brain, and manifest without being taught?

Possible Answers:

Systematic functional grammar

Universal grammar

Lexical functional grammar

Role and reference grammar

Country grammar

Correct answer:

Universal grammar

Explanation:

Usually credited to Noam Chomsky, the theory of universal grammar suggests that all possible human languages share certain properties, such as the rules of grammar. For Chomsky, the development of language involves genetic endowment, external data, and principles not specific to the faculty of language (i.e. those properties of the brain that cause it to learn language).

Example Question #121 : Cognition And Consciousness

What is the name of the region of the brain responsible for controlling speech?

Possible Answers:

Wernicke area

Brokaw area

Bicameral area

Broca area

Sprachbund area

Correct answer:

Broca area

Explanation:

Also called convolution of Broca, the Broca area region of the brain contains motor neurons involved in speech production. The Broca region was discovered by a French surgeon, named Paul Broca, in 1861. 

Example Question #1 : Language

An individual with damage to Broca's area is most likely to have difficulty with which of the following tasks?

Possible Answers:

Distinguishing between blue and yellow

Answering a question out loud

Comprehending a spoken request

Remembering a phone number

Correct answer:

Answering a question out loud

Explanation:

Broca's area is a region of the frontal lobe of the cortex, and is linked to the ability to produce speech. Damage to Broca's area can lead to Broca's aphasia, which is the inability to speak out loud.

In contrast, Wernicke's area is located in the temporal lobe of the cortex and is credited with processing and interpreting the speech of others. Damage to Wernicke's area could leave a patient unable to comprehend a spoken request. Remembering a phone number would require processing by the hippocampus, which is a component of the limbic system credited with memory storage. Blue-yellow color blindness arises when a genetic disorder leaves the individual unable to produce cones that detect light at short wavelengths (such as blue).

Example Question #2 : Language

Which hypothesis predicts that differences in language cause differences in thinking patterns and other cognitive processes?

Possible Answers:

Kohlberg hypothesis

Social learning hypothesis

Perceptual organization hypothesis

Psychoanalytic hypothesis

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Correct answer:

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Explanation:

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (also known as linguistic relativity) states that language shapes the way we see the world. The strong version of the theory states that language determines thought, whereas the weak version states that language merely influences some non-linguistic processes.

Example Question #2 : Language

How did Noam Chomsky propose that we acquire language?

Possible Answers:

We acquire the dominant language of the society in which we live

We acquire language through teachings from caregivers and peers

We acquire the native language of our parents

We are born with an innate capacity to rapidly learn language

Correct answer:

We are born with an innate capacity to rapidly learn language

Explanation:

Noam Chomsky proposed that we all are born with a "language acquisition device" in our minds, which gives us universal principles of human language. We learn our language's own "settings" for human communication according to these universal principles. For instance, if all human language has temporal tenses, we learn how our particular language expresses tense. Although the behaviorists believe we only learn language through our environment, Chomsky pointed out that we learn language very quickly through processes that appear similar to the human species, regardless of environment.

Example Question #51 : Cognition

What's the difference between semantics and syntax?

Possible Answers:

Semantics is concerned with how we assign meaning in language; syntax is concerned with the structure of human language and its idiosyncrasies

Semantics studies the structure of sound and how certain sounds reflect meaning in language; syntax is the study of how we assign meaning to units of sound

Semantics is concerned with the acoustics of sound; syntax is concerned with patterns of sound across language

Semantics is concerned with the structure of human language and its idiosyncrasies; syntax is concerned with how we assign meaning in language.

Correct answer:

Semantics is concerned with how we assign meaning in language; syntax is concerned with the structure of human language and its idiosyncrasies

Explanation:

Semantics and syntax are fields of linguistics that concern different aspects of language. Syntax is primarily concerned with the universal properties and idiosyncrasies of the structure of language. For example, syntax studies how we construct our language an speech, and how we form certain phrases and clauses. Semantics is concerned with deciphering meaning in language by looking at its logical structure, the meaning of words, or how it is represented cognitively.   

Example Question #2 : Language

What, according to Hockett, is a unique property and linguistic universal of human language?

Possible Answers:

Emotive, the ability to convey complex human emotions, which are unique to the human species

Semanticity, which allows us to assign a meaning to auditory units

Displacement, which allows us to communicate about events or objects which are not immediately apparent

Communication, which allows us to signal back and forth from one another

Correct answer:

Displacement, which allows us to communicate about events or objects which are not immediately apparent

Explanation:

Displacement is a unique property of human language. The only possible exception is in the case of bees, which may have a method of communicating directions to a plant they found. Other than this, we are unique in our ability to discuss events or objects that are not immediately apparent such as places far away, the past, and the future. Some have even theorized this was where the need for language began.

 

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors