AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #583 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Cocaine belongs to which of the following drug categories?

Possible Answers:

Stimulants

Hallucinogens

Opiates

Depressants

Suppressants

Correct answer:

Stimulants

Explanation:

Cocaine is considered to be a stimulant because it is known to excite neural processes and body functions. These effects have been observed in other stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine. Cocaine users will receive an immediate sense of euphoria because of the drug's ability to interfere with and deplete the brain's source of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. Within hours a crash will set in, this leaves the individual depressed and agitated.

Example Question #61 : Consciousness

Which of the following types of individuals can be hypnotized?

Possible Answers:

People who are not open to suggestions are more likely to be hypnotized  

Hypnosis is only effective on those that have undergone traumatic events

People who are highly open to suggestions are more likely to be hypnotized

Hypnotism is possible for all volunteers

Hypnosis is not a real method of altering consciousness

Correct answer:

People who are highly open to suggestions are more likely to be hypnotized

Explanation:

To some degree, most individuals are open for suggestions; however, there are some that are more open to them than others. These individuals are more likely to be hypnotizable. For instance, this may be observed in the phenomenon known as postural sway. In this process, a group of individuals are lined up and told to stand straight with their eyes closed. Afterwards, a person will randomly call out individuals and tell them that they are swaying. It has been observed that people who are highly open to suggestion may begin to sway when they were not previously. These types of individuals are more likely to experience hypnosis.

Example Question #11 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that alter perception and mood. Which of the following describes how an individual would become tolerant to such medications?

Possible Answers:

One would become tolerant through continuously increasing the dose

One would become tolerant through repeated exposure of the same dose

One would become tolerant through being exposed only once

One would become tolerant through random occasional exposure

One would become tolerant through stopping use and relapsing

Correct answer:

One would become tolerant through repeated exposure of the same dose

Explanation:

Tolerance is what occurs when the effects of the same dose of drug diminishes over extended use. Upon repeated exposure, the brain will begin to adjust its chemistry to counteract the effects of the drug. Because exposure needs to be regular for tolerance to occur, the option about random exposure would be incorrect. It's common to observe those who have become tolerant to begin increasing their usual dose. This is a potential outcome of tolerance; therefore, this option is incorrect. While some drugs may have an affect on individuals upon exposure only once, this does not entail tolerance. This becomes a matter of an individual becoming "hooked" on the drug; therefore, this option would also be incorrect. When an individual decides to stop, the body may undergo withdrawal if the individual has developed a physical dependence and is addicted to the drug; thus, this answer is also incorrect.

Example Question #591 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following terms is best defined as the form of waves that are emitted by a person who is awake, unfocused, and relaxed?

Possible Answers:

Alpha waves

Delta waves

None of these

Theta waves

Beta waves

Correct answer:

Alpha waves

Explanation:

Alpha waves are a type of brain wave that occurs when a person is about to fall asleep. The person will be relaxed and unfocused but still aware of their surroundings.

Example Question #592 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Natural and synthetic depressants include which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Prescription painkillers

Alcohol

Tranquilizers

Heroin

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Alcohol, prescription painkillers, tranquilizers, heroin, and others affect the nervous system in a depressive manner. This class of drugs generally lowers neurotransmitter levels and decreases central nervous system functions.

Example Question #13 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Which of the following are classified as stimulants?

Possible Answers:

LSD

Amphetamine

Morphine

Alcohol

Psilocybin

Correct answer:

Amphetamine

Explanation:

Amphetamine is an excitatory drug that affects the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Alcohol and morphine are depressants, whereas LSD and psilocybin are hallucinogens.

Example Question #12 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Which of the following significantly affects both serotonin and dopamine concentrations?

Possible Answers:

Tranquilizers

Psilocybin

Sedatives

Alcohol

Cocaine

Correct answer:

Cocaine

Explanation:

Cocaine is excitatory and stimulates the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Example Question #593 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

For thousands of years, cultures throughout the world have been able create natural drugs from which of the following classes?

Possible Answers:

Hallucinogens

None of these

Depressants

All of these

Stimulants

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Throughout human history, people have utilized naturally occurring substances to reach altered states of consciousness. These substances range widely among the categorizations that modern Western science has created, including stimulants (e.g. coffee), depressants (e.g. wine), and hallucinogens (e.g. certain mushrooms). Generally, drug addiction and abuse has only become a problem with the advent and manipulation of synthetic drugs, along with social changes and stresses.

Example Question #61 : Cognition And Consciousness

Amphetamines have historically been used to treat which of the following disorders?

I. Narcolepsy

II. Depression

III. Obesity

IV. Schizophrenia

Possible Answers:

III only

I only

I and III 

II and III

III and IV

Correct answer:

I and III 

Explanation:

Amphetamines affect the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has a direct link to alertness and circadian rhythms. Amphetamines are also stimulatory; therefore, they can aid in increasing metabolism.

Example Question #62 : Cognition And Consciousness

Which of the following best identifies the principal effects of stimulant drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine?

Possible Answers:

Euphoria, relaxation, anxiety reduction, pain relief

Elation, excitement, increased alertness, increased energy, reduced fatigue

Increased sensory awareness, euphoria, altered perceptions, hallucinations, insightful experiences

Mild euphoria, relaxation, anxiety reduction, reduced inhibitions

Correct answer:

Elation, excitement, increased alertness, increased energy, reduced fatigue

Explanation:

Stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines primarily raise the physiological arousal of the body and boost mood resulting in elation, excitement, increased energy and focus, and reduced fatigue. Other drugs, such as barbiturates, alcohol, and hallucinogens have different effects. 

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