AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #631 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

What is anterograde amnesia?

Possible Answers:

Memory loss for events that occurred later in life

Memory loss for events that occurred before the age of three.

Memory loss for events that transpired following immediately after trauma.

All of these answers are accurate.

None of these answers is accurate.

Correct answer:

Memory loss for events that transpired following immediately after trauma.

Explanation:

Anterograde amnesia is memory loss for events that transpired following immediately after trauma. Retrograde amnesia refers to memory loss for events that preceded the traumatic event.

Example Question #1042 : Ap Psychology

Which of the following psychologists is famous for research on false memories?

Possible Answers:

Elizabeth Loftus

Noam Chomsky

Hermann Ebbinghaus

George A. Miller

Wolfgang Köhler

Correct answer:

Elizabeth Loftus

Explanation:

Elizabeth Loftus has had a long and distinguished career studying eyewitness memory and the creation of false memories. In one of her well-known experiments, participants remembered the speed of a car as being faster or slower depending on the wording of the question. In another experiment, she demonstrated that about 25 percent of people could be convinced that they remembered being lost in a mall as a small child, even though this event never actually happened to them. 

Example Question #31 : Memory

After suffering damage to her hippocampus, Pauline can still remember her past perfectly; however, she constantly forgets information she learned only moments earlier. Which of the following diagnoses best identifies Pauline’s condition?

Possible Answers:

Echoic memory

Amnesia

Anterograde amnesia

Retrograde amnesia

Correct answer:

Anterograde amnesia

Explanation:

“Anterograde amnesia” is caused by damage to the hippocampus and results in the inability to create new memories. “Retrograde amnesia” is also caused by damage to the hippocampus, but is characterizes with the inability to remember anything that occurred before a certain time. These individuals can still form new memories. “Amnesia” is too general of term and is incorrect. Last, “echoic memory” is not associated with forgetting information. 

Example Question #31 : Memory

Which of the following is not an example of an implicit memory?

Possible Answers:

Episodic memory

Procedural memory

Classically conditioned learning

Priming

Correct answer:

Episodic memory

Explanation:

Episodic memory (i.e. memories of lived experiences), together with semantic memory (i.e. known facts), forms the category explicit memory. Explicit memories are available for conscious reflection and can be called up and described. The other three choices are all types of implicit memory, or memory that is drawn upon outside of conscious awareness. Procedural memory refers to the knowledge of how to perform physical actions. Priming refers to the unintended influence of frequent or recent experiences. Classically conditioned learning refers to trained associations between frequently paired stimuli.

Example Question #31 : Cognition

Esther is trying to memorize digits of pi——by reading them in order and reciting them back from memory. She notices herself having to look back at her cheat sheet each time she gets about seven digits out from:

Which of the following theorists’ work best explains this phenomenon?

Possible Answers:

Stanley Milgram

Noam Chomsky

George Lakoff

George Miller

Correct answer:

George Miller

Explanation:

George Miller’s research on short-term memory established that humans are typically limited to dealing with “seven plus or minus two” pieces of information at one time. Noam Chomsky is most famous for theorizing universal grammar and language acquisition. George Lakoff’s work concerns the relationship between cognition and metaphor. Stanley Milgram is a social psychologist, controversial for his work on obedience.

Example Question #33 : Memory

Which of the following examples best displays the spacing effect?

Possible Answers:

Studying for multiple subjects at the same time facilitates later performance on exams.

Studying for exams is only helpful if the subject matter covers familiar material.

Studying throughout the week yields better retention than studying all night before an exam.

Studying in space is more effective than studying under water.

Studying in multiple contexts facilitates recall during the exam.

Correct answer:

Studying throughout the week yields better retention than studying all night before an exam.

Explanation:

In the field of psychology, the spacing effect is the phenomenon in which humans more easily remember items when they are spaced out over a long period of time as opposed to repeatedly studied in a short period of time.

Example Question #32 : Cognition

The common saying—“It’s like riding a bike”—reflects the idea that learning to ride a bike is often firmly stored in one’s memory. The ability to ride a bike would be stored in a person’s __________.

Possible Answers:

short term memory

episodic memory

semantic memory

procedural memory

Correct answer:

procedural memory

Explanation:

"Procedural memory" refers to a memory of “knowing how.” If you can ride a bike, then you might not be able to word-for-word verbalize your memory of how to do so; therefore, "semantic memory" is not the best choice. Psychologists would also distinguish between remembering how to ride a bike and remembering when you learned to ride a bike—the latter would be considered "episodic memory." Additionally, "short term memory" refers to information held immediately in consciousness for a very brief time, often in order to carry out a certain task, which is then lost if not transferred to long term memory.  The general knowledge of riding a bike would not be permanently stored in short term memory.

Example Question #41 : Memory

What is the first stage of memory processing in the information-processing theory of memory?  

Possible Answers:

Encoding

Rehearsal 

Storage

Retrieval

Correct answer:

Encoding

Explanation:

In the information processing theory of memory, "encoding" must precede both storage and retrieval. Rehearsal is only essential in short term memory, but also must follow encoding. The process of encoding is essential to transferring perception into memory, so it must occur first. 

Example Question #41 : Cognition

Cameron experienced a traumatic car accident. After recovery, he is only able to remember things that happened before the accident and is completely unable to retain new memories. He is most likely suffering from which of the following? 

Possible Answers:

Retroactive interference

 

Post traumatic stress disorder 

Anterograde amnesia

 

Selective amnesia

Correct answer:

Anterograde amnesia

 

Explanation:

"Anterograde amnesia" describes the condition in which an individual is unable to create or retain new memories following a specific incident. For Cameron, this specific moment is the car crash. It is where his long term memory ends and he loses the ability to add more information to this collection. He is unable to recall the recent past, in contrast with his vivid recollection of the time before the accident. 

Example Question #42 : Cognition

Remembering the beginning contents of a long list is termed the __________________.

Possible Answers:

recency effect

primacy effect

naming effect

visual effect

spatial effect

Correct answer:

primacy effect

Explanation:

The primacy effect and the recency effect are termed the "serial position effects". The primacy effect is a phenomenon that allows one to remember information better that is initially presented to them (e.g., the beginning contents of a long list). The recency effect refers to the ability to better recall information presented last (e.g., information presented at the end of a long list).

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