AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

What is the key difference between the state and non-state theory of hypnosis?

Possible Answers:

Non-state asserts that there is no actual altered state of consciousness during hypnosis and that the person is acting out the role of a hypnotized person. State asserts that during hypnosis the person is accessing a different state of consciousness. 

Non-state claims that a person simply gets sleepy during hypnosis, but does not enter a new consciousness. State claims that hypnosis allows the person to access their subconscious mind.  

Non-state asserts that while under hypnosis one slips in and out of consciousness, at times expressing subconscious fears or desires. State asserts that during hypnosis the person is accessing an elevated state of spiritual consciousness.

Non-state asserts that hypnosis is harmful. State claims that hypnosis can provide benefits to the patient.

Correct answer:

Non-state asserts that there is no actual altered state of consciousness during hypnosis and that the person is acting out the role of a hypnotized person. State asserts that during hypnosis the person is accessing a different state of consciousness. 

Explanation:

There are three primary theories of hypnosis.

Non-state, also known as "role theory," claims that hypnosis does not alter one's state of mind. Instead, the person undergoing hypnosis is acting out a particular role for a therapeutic benefit.

State theory asserts that a person does not have any agency in the matter of hypnosis. Rather, they are completely submerged in a different state of mind.

The third theory is dissocation, in which a person involuntarily decides to split their own consciousness.

There is no definitive proof to back up any of these claims, though hypnosis remains a popular way to treat a variety of disorders.

Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

What term describes people who are more easily hypnotized than others?

Possible Answers:

gullible

hypnotizable

receptive

convincible

highly-suggestible

Correct answer:

highly-suggestible

Explanation:

"Highly-suggestible" is the term for people who are more easily hypnotized.

Example Question #573 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is an accidental or pathological cause of an altered state of consciousness?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Psychosis

Infections

Sleep deprivation

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are many purposeful ways to induce an altered state of consciousness, but some accidental or pathological ones include infections, sleep deprivation, or psychosis. Some others are fasting, epilepsy, or traumatic experiences. An altered state of consciousness due to any of these is often an indicator of either a mental or physical health issue and should be addressed right away. 

Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Which of the following is not a type of psychoactive drug?

Possible Answers:

Opiates

Alcohol

All of these are psychoactive drugs.

Coffee

Barbiturates

Correct answer:

All of these are psychoactive drugs.

Explanation:

Psychoactive drugs are any substances that alter behavior, mood, memory, or perception. Some are stimulants, such as the caffeine found in coffee. Others are depressants, such as alcohol.

Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

A research participant is asked seven questions during an interview. Three weeks later, he is asked six different questions and one question that he was asked before. He answers the familiar question more quickly than the new questions. This is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

latent content

dualism

priming

subconscious

Correct answer:

priming

Explanation:

Priming refers to a person's ability to more quickly/accurately respond to previously asked questions, whether they remember them or not. This is closely related to the mere-exposure effect, which states that we are more likely to prefer familiar things than unfamiliar things.

Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Which of the following drugs is an opiate?

Possible Answers:

Marijuana

Cocaine

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

Alcohol

Oxycodone

Correct answer:

Oxycodone

Explanation:

Opiates, such as heroin, are drugs derived from the opium poppy. These highly addictive substances are used as mood elevators and painkillers.

Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Antagonists are a type of drug that do which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Change the chemistry of the brain by preventing neurotransmitters from entering receptor sites

Speed up body processes

Change the chemistry of the brain by mimicking neurotransmitters

Change one's perception of reality

Slow down body systems

Correct answer:

Change the chemistry of the brain by preventing neurotransmitters from entering receptor sites

Explanation:

Antagonists are a type of psychoactive drug. Psychoactive drugs are drugs that change the chemistry of the brain. There are two types that do this: antagonists and agonists. Agonists change the chemistry of the brain by mimicking neurotransmitters. Antagonists also change the chemistry of the brain, but they do not mimic neurotransmitters. Instead, they simply prevent neurotransmitters from entering receptor sites.

Example Question #991 : Ap Psychology

Alcohol belongs to which of the following drug categories?

Possible Answers:

Suppressants

Depressants

Hallucinogens

Stimulants

Barbiturates 

Correct answer:

Depressants

Explanation:

The three categories of drugs that have been established are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. Although an individual may seem lively with a small amount of alcohol, alcohol is actually a depressant. The liveliness comes from the fact that alcohol acts as a disinhibitor. This means it will act to slow down neural processing and brain activity responsible for judgment and inhibitions. As a result, people are more likely to act out in ways that they would not under unaffected judgment and conditions. Barbiturates are tranquilizers. These also fall under the category depressants; therefore, this would also be incorrect.

Example Question #581 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Opiates belong to which of the following drug categories?

Possible Answers:

Hallucinogens

Suppressants 

Stimulants

Barbiturates

Depressants

Correct answer:

Depressants

Explanation:

The three categories drugs may be organized into are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. As a result, "suppressants" and "barbiturates" would be incorrect options. Opiates (i.e. opium, morphine, and heroin) may be considered depressants because they depress neural functions. As the nervous system is slowed, the individual may feel a sense of pleasure. In the meantime, pupils will constrict and breathing will slow down. These are not the effects of stimulants and hallucinogens; therefore, those options would be incorrect as well.

Example Question #582 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is not a stimulant?

Possible Answers:

Nicotine

LSD

Cocaine 

Caffeine 

Amphetamines 

Correct answer:

LSD

Explanation:

Stimulants are chemicals known to stimulate the nervous system. It will excite neural activity and body functions. Physiological effects include dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, an increase in blood sugar, and a resulting decrease in appetite that coincide with increased energy levels. LSD would not be considered a stimulant because it is a hallucinogen. This means that it will distort perception and create sensory images without the sensory stimulus.

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