Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Nervous System Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #71 : Injuries And Disorders

A tremor at rest (which disappears during voluntary movement) and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons are characteristic of what condition? 

Possible Answers:

Alzheimer's disease

Parkinson's disease 

Grave's disease 

Meningitis 

Huntington's disease

Correct answer:

Parkinson's disease 

Explanation:

Parkinson's disease is a disorder of the basal ganglia, which plays a dominant role in movement. Those with Parkinson's will develop a tremor at rest, an increase in rigidity, and slowness in carrying out movements. The neurotransmitter dopamine plays an important role in the development of the disease and the degeneration of dopaminergic fibers occurs in Parkinson's disease. Huntington's Disease is characterized by hyperactivity (rather than a decrease, which is found in Parkinson's disease. GABAergic neurons may be affected during the early stages of the disease, causing over activity. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that involves memory loss. Meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the meninges of the brain. Grave's disease is an autoimmune condition that is characterized by an overproduction of thyroid hormones. 

Example Question #71 : Injuries And Disorders

Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune condition which is characterized by rapid fatigue and weakness of muscles under voluntary control. 

Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune disease in which the body develops antibodies against which of the following neurotransmitters? 

Possible Answers:

Serotonin 

Epinephrine

Acetylcholine 

GABA 

Dopamine

Correct answer:

Acetylcholine 

Explanation:

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction. The antibodies produced against acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction prevent synaptic transmission, causing the muscle weakness and fatigue characterized by Myasthenia Gravis. Epinephrine(also known as adrenaline) is a monoamine that plays an important role in the sympathetic nervous system. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Dopamine is neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the body's pleasure and reward system. It is characterized as a catecholamine. Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that acts throughout the body and plays a role in depression and happiness. 

Example Question #72 : Injuries And Disorders

What is insomnia?

Possible Answers:

An inability to sleep

An inability to process thoughts

An inability to stay awake

An inability to produce oxytocin

Correct answer:

An inability to sleep

Explanation:

Insomnia is a sleep disorder, in which people have trouble falling or staying asleep. It can be an acute or chronic disorder. Insomnia can cause other problems such as anxiety, inattention, or depression. It can be treated by lifestyle changes, medication, or therapy.

Example Question #73 : Injuries And Disorders

What is narcolepsy?

Possible Answers:

A disorder that causes periods of extreme inability to sleep

A disorder that causes the inability to speak

A disorder that causes rapid eye blinking during waking hours

A disorder that causes periods of extreme daytime sleepiness

Correct answer:

A disorder that causes periods of extreme daytime sleepiness

Explanation:

Narcolepsy is a disorder that leads to extreme daytime sleepiness and/or muscle weakness. It causes people to fall asleep suddenly, even in the middle of tasks. There is no cure, but it can be managed by medicine, lifestyle changes, or therapy.

Example Question #74 : Injuries And Disorders

What is sleep apnea?

Possible Answers:

A disorder that causes one or more pauses in breathing while asleep

A disorder that causes hallucinations of sleeping

A disorder that causes night terrors

A disorder that causes an inability to fall asleep

Correct answer:

A disorder that causes one or more pauses in breathing while asleep

Explanation:

Sleep apnea is a disorder in which you stop breathing at night while asleep. Often, those suffering from the disorder are not aware they wake up at night to breathe. It creates a poor quality of sleep, which leads to daytime sleepiness.

Example Question #75 : Injuries And Disorders

What is a condition that can occur if there is a disruption in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid?

Possible Answers:

Uncontrollable cell growth

Hydrocephalus

Hemorrhagic fever

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder

Correct answer:

Hydrocephalus

Explanation:

Hydrocephalus occurs when there is a disruption in the circulation of cerebral spinal fluid or CSF. This can cause swelling of the head and may be treated by shunting some of the excess CSF out of the cranial cavity. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder affects the jaw and is caused by a misalignment of joints. Hemorrhagic fever is caused by an infectious agent, like the Ebola virus. Uncontrollable cell growth is also known as cancer. 

Example Question #76 : Injuries And Disorders

What is another name for a seizure disorder?

Possible Answers:

Cerebral edema

Elephantiasis

Epilepsy

Ebola

Correct answer:

Epilepsy

Explanation:

Epilepsy is also known as a seizure disorder and is a disorder of the nervous system. A seizure is a short term change in normal brain activity. There are two types of seizures: generalized, which affects both sides of the brain, and focal, which affects one area of the brain. Ebola is caused by a virus that causes hemorrhagic fever. Cerebral edema is classified by swelling of the brain, which can cause irreversible damage and death in severe cases. Elephantiasis is a symptom classified by excessive swelling of a certain part of the body.

Example Question #77 : Injuries And Disorders

What is the full name of ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)?

Possible Answers:

Asymptomatic lateral sclerosis

Acute lemonis spactularis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic longitudinal sclerosis

Correct answer:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Explanation:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive disease that attacks the nerve cells that control voluntary movement. It is not known what causes ALS and there is currently no treatment. The US has a registry that tracks who gets ALS in an attempt to understand the disease. 

Example Question #81 : Injuries And Disorders

What are some of the signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Possible Answers:

Aversion of people, extreme dislike of anything except solitude, aphasia, deafness

Severe delay in cognitive development, inability to breathe without medical intervention, aversion of eye contact, disinterest in others

Mongol face, shield-shaped chest, large hands, mental disabilities, inability to communicate

Not looking when objects are pointed out to them, avoids eye contact, avoids social settings, aversion of touch, repetition of actions or words, unusual reactions to sensory input

Correct answer:

Not looking when objects are pointed out to them, avoids eye contact, avoids social settings, aversion of touch, repetition of actions or words, unusual reactions to sensory input

Explanation:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has a wide range of signs or symptoms. These can vary from mild to severe, depending on the individual. There is no single cause for autism and there is no cure. Treatment includes management of behaviors, therapy, interventional services. 

Example Question #82 : Injuries And Disorders

What are some symptoms of meningitis?

Possible Answers:

Headache, vomiting, excess bile production

Insomnia, irritability, flu-like symptoms

Confusion, water aversion, aggression

Headache, fever, stiff neck

Correct answer:

Headache, fever, stiff neck

Explanation:

Meningitis is an illness that features fevers, headaches, and stiff necks. This is a serious illness that can be fatal if not treated promptly. It typically begins showing symptoms 3-7 days after exposure. If the infection is bacterial in origin, it can be treated effectively with antibiotics. If it is viral, the treatment is supportive in nature.  

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