Human Anatomy and Physiology : Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Help With Excretory Injuries And Disorders

What disease features a build up of uric acid that leads to monosodium urate crystals in tissue?

Possible Answers:

Gout

Ebola

Asthma

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Correct answer:

Gout

Explanation:

Gout is a rheumatic disease that features monosodium urate crystals in tissue as the result of excess levels of uric acid in the blood stream. This can be caused by over or under excretion of uric acid. Gout can be both acute or chronic. Obesity, alcohol consumption, meat-rich diets, and poor kidney function are all risk factors. Ebola is an infectious virus that causes hemorrhagic fever. Asthma is a form of COPD (the other is chronic bronchitis), and is characterized by bronchoconstriction, causing difficulty breathing, especially when exhaling.

Example Question #1 : Help With Excretory Injuries And Disorders

Due to a pathological heart condition (abnormal heart activity, i.e., congestive heart failure), which of the following changes will be observed? 

Possible Answers:

Hypocalcemia

Hyponatremia

Hypernatremia

Hypercalcemia

None of the other answers

Correct answer:

Hypernatremia

Explanation:

Hypernatremia. A pathological heart, is a heart that is not functioning properly. The kidneys rely heavily upon the heart for their perfusion and alteration to their perfusion will cause the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Thus, a pathological heart, which cannot adequately perfuse the kidneys with blood, will lead to the activation of the RAAS, causing hypernatremia (from increased aldosterone levels).

Example Question #1 : Injuries And Disorders

A 47-year old woman is brought by ambulance to the trauma bay after being involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision. She is unresponsive, with a blood pressure of 78/42 and pulse 132. She is immediately intubated and breath sounds are confirmed. Her heart sounds are normal and peripheral pulses are intact. There is no obvious bleeding and two large bore IVs are started. Abdominal ultrasound reveals a fluid collection in the left upper quadrant. She continues to deteriorate and is brought emergently to the OR for exploratory laparotomy, where packing of the abdomen reveals extensive bleeding in the left upper quadrant. What do you expect is the cause of this bleeding?

Possible Answers:

Bladder laceration

Right iliac artery laceration

Liver laceration

Splenic laceration

Left iliac artery laceration

Correct answer:

Splenic laceration

Explanation:

Blood collecting in the left upper quadrant would suggest a splenic laceration.

The spleen is one of the most commonly injured organs with blunt abdominal trauma. It can and will bleed enough to make a patient hemodynamically unstable. Ultrasound performed in the trauma bay looks at four potential spaces of fluid collection: Morrison's pouch (right upper quadrant/liver), splenorenal recess (left upper quadrant/spleen), subxiphoid (heart), and the pouch of Douglas (suprapubic/pelvis). The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and the spleen in the left upper quadrant

This patient's ultrasound showed fluid collection in the perisplenic space as well as extensive bleeding, which would suggest a splenic laceration as the cause of the patient's condition.

The liver is in the right upper quadrant. The right and left iliac arteries are in the right and left lower quadrants, respectively. Bladder laceration would result in fluid collection in the pelvis.

Example Question #1 : Injuries And Disorders

What is the disease caused by the parasite Giardia?

Possible Answers:

Gastritis

Gout

Giardiasis

Geranium

Correct answer:

Giardiasis

Explanation:

Giardiasis is the disease caused by the Giardia parasite. The parasite is passed through feces and can live up to several weeks outside of a host. Common symptoms of giardiasis is diarrhea, gas, stomach cramps, and dehydration. It is treated via prescription medication. Gastritis is characterized by inflammation of the stomach. In giardiasis, the intestines are affected. Gout is a rheumatoid disease and is not caused by an infectious agent. Geranium is a type of flower.

Example Question #2 : Excretory And Digestive Systems

What causes salmonella?

Possible Answers:

Fungus

Prion

Bacteria

Virus

Correct answer:

Bacteria

Explanation:

Salmonella is an illness caused by a bacterium. Salmonella is often found in raw egg or poultry. It typically presents with gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, and fever. It can be treated with antibiotics, but rarely becomes serious unless it is present in the old, the young, or the immunocompromised. 

Example Question #1 : Injuries And Disorders

When a patient has true "heartburn," their heart is not actually the problem; they are suffering from Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux. In this condition, acidic gastric contents inappropriately travel back from the stomach into the esophagus due to the faulty function of which structure?

Possible Answers:

Left mainstem bronchus

Epiglottis

Lower esophageal sphincter

Ileocecal valve

Upper esophageal sphincter

Correct answer:

Lower esophageal sphincter

Explanation:

The correct answer is the lower esophageal sphincter. In "heartburn," a patient's lower esophageal sphincter, which separates the distal esophagus from the proximal stomach, transiently relaxes its tone, inappropriately allowing food/digestive contents that have been acidified for digestion in the stomach to travel backwards into the distal esophagus. In patients with normal lower esophageal sphincter tone, i.e. without GERD, digestive contents that have passed to the stomach remain in the stomach without traveling backwards and causing an acidic, burning sensation in the esophagus. 

The other answers are incorrect for the following reasons:

The epiglottis prevents food from being swallowed into the airway by closing off the airway temporarily during swallowing.  It does not separate the esophagus from the stomach.

The upper esophageal sphincter is located proximally in the esophagus and opens to allow food to enter the esophagus from the pharynx. It does not separate the esophagus from the stomach.

The ileocecal valve is located distally in the small intestine, separating the ileum from the cecum of the colon. It functions to prevent colo-ileal reflux, but not gastro-esophageal reflux.

The left mainstem bronchus does not play any role in digestion of food or acid reflux, as it is part of the more distal respiratory tract.

Example Question #2 : Help With Digestive Injuries And Disorders

A deficiency of which vitamin or mineral is responsible for beriberi?

Possible Answers:

Vitamin E

Vitamin D

Riboflavin

Vitamin B12

Thiamine

Correct answer:

Thiamine

Explanation:

Thiamine is a vitamin required for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. Deficiency of this vitamin results in beriberi, a disease typically of the malnourished. Symptoms of this disease manifest in many different ways such as heart failure, neuropathy, and leg swelling.

Example Question #1 : Help With Evaluation Methods For The Digestive System

Jen has been having issues digesting gluten throughout her life. Her doctors tell her that she has celiac disease, which is an autoimmune disease that is causing her immune system to attack the brush border of her __________, which then prevents absorption and causes illness when she consumes gluten.

Possible Answers:

pancreas

large intestine

small intestine

stomach

Correct answer:

small intestine

Explanation:

Celiac disease is an autoimmune response in which the body attacks the brush border of the small intestine and therefore prevents proper nutrient absorption. The small intestine's brush border is made of many small protrusions called villi and microvilli, which increase surface area in order to increase absorption area. Without these areas of absorption, the body cannot absorb a sufficient amount of necessary nutrients from the diet.

Example Question #1 : Injuries And Disorders

Pain location: right lower quadrant, periumbilical, may radiate to the right flank

Aggravations: movement or coughing

Positive tests: right psoas sign, Rovsing test, Blumberg test, McBurney test

Which of the following abdominal disorders fits best with the given description?

Possible Answers:

Acute cholecystitis

Acute appendicitis

Peptic ulcer

Acute pancreatitis 

Acute diverticulitis 

Correct answer:

Acute appendicitis

Explanation:

Acute diverticulitis: left lower quadrant

Acute pancreatitis: epigastric, can radiate to back, poorly localized, leaning forward may help alleviate pain, laying supine aggravates. May have positive Grey Turner's sign and Cullen's sign.

Acute cholecystitis: Right Upper Quadrant, Positive Murphy Sign, may radiate into right shoulder and scapula

Peptic ulcer: epigastric, may radiate to back, wakens patient at night, possible relief with certain foods, gnawing/aching pain, heartburn

Example Question #1 : Injuries And Disorders

A 62-year old man with a history of chicken pox as a child presents with a rash around his neck for the past two days. He recalls an intense burning pain in the same area a few days before the rash appeared. This is the first time he has experienced this and admits that his family physician has been pushing him to get the shingles vaccine. After doing some reading on shingles, the patient asks you “what spinal nerve is affected?”

Possible Answers:

T2

C2

C6

C3

T4

Correct answer:

C3

Explanation:

The affected dermatome is supplied by the spinal root C3.

This is a matter of simple memorization of dermatomes in the body. Each dermatome is innervated by a single spinal nerve, which is responsible for sensation in the area. The neck is supplied mostly by C3, with C4 and C5 supplying parts of the posterior neck.

C2 supplies the back of the skull. C6 supplies the lateral aspect of the arm and forearm. T2 supplies the upper chest and medial aspect of the arm. T4 is a common landmark dermatome as it supplies the nipples. Another landmark is T10, which supplies the umbilical cord.

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