Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Nervous System Injuries and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #41 : Help With Nervous System Injuries And Disorders

Which spinal nerve is most likely to be irritated by posterolateral herniation of the intervertebral disc between L5 and the sacrum?

Possible Answers:

S2

L4

S1

L3

Correct answer:

S1

Explanation:

The S1 nerve is most likely to be irritated by a posteriolateral herniation of the intervertebral disc between L5 and the sacrum. To best understand this, recall that in the lumbar spine the spinal nerve exits below the associated vertebrae. Disc herniation occurs when the anulus fibrosus tears (often due to age related degeneration, lifting injuries, or trauma) and the soft nucleus pulposus is displaced and puts pressure of the nerve. Additionally the tear in the anulus fibrosus can cause the release of inflammatory mediators which will also irritate the nerve. 

 

Example Question #42 : Help With Nervous System Injuries And Disorders

A 55-year-old male presents with pain in his lower back. Lumbar radiographs show marked narrowing of the left L2-L3 intervertebral foramen; the adjacent intervertebral foramina appear normal.  

This is likely to be matched to signs of nerve impingement affecting which nerve in the lumbar region?

Possible Answers:

L3

L2

L4

S1

Correct answer:

L2

Explanation:

Damage to nerve roots can cause weakness, paralysis, pain, and numbness to muscles and areas innervated by the affected nerve root. When nerves of the lumbar region are involved, lower back pain is usually the first symptom to develop. Pain typically will increase gradually before other symptoms of radiculopathy present. Due to the way nerve roots exit the vertebrae, in the lumbar region the nerve root affected usually correlates to the upper vertebrae. In this case there is a narrowing of the L2/L3 space and thus the L2 nerve is affected. 

Example Question #42 : Help With Nervous System Injuries And Disorders

Patient comes into the office with a traumatic brain injury. After doing an initial evaluation, lab values state that the serum osmolarity is low and the urine osmolarity is high. Which of the following hormones is responsible for this? 

Possible Answers:

Prolactin

Dopamine

Aldosterone

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Correct answer:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Explanation:

Any injury to the brain can cause a release of any number of hormones into the body. Thus proper evaluation should be conducted immediately for the hormone most likely with the patients presentation. ADH is responsible for this patients abnormalities. ADH causes an increase in water re-absorption which decreases serum osmolarity and consequently, increases urine osmolarity. 

Example Question #43 : Help With Nervous System Injuries And Disorders

Bell's palsy may be caused by damage to which cranial nerve?

Possible Answers:

CN V2

CN VII

CN VI

CN V3

CN III

Correct answer:

CN VII

Explanation:

CN VII, or facial nerve, innervates the muscles responsible for facial expression. Bell's palsy is a disease that causes one side of the face to droop because the muscles are paralyzed. It can be idiopathic, associated with herpes simplex/lyme disease, or a result of CN VII being divided.

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