AP World History : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, and Globalization 1750 to 1900

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #51 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

The ____________ was an ambitious project by the British that sought to connect British colonies extending along the south-north axis on the African continent.

Possible Answers:

Grand African Locomotive

North to South Railway

African Railway

Point to Point Railway

Cape to Cairo Railway

Correct answer:

Cape to Cairo Railway

Explanation:

The Cape to Cairo Railway was the brainchild of British imperialist, Cecil Rhodes. The railway was worked on in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but was never completed. The British faced numerous challenges in completing the railway including climate, landscape, and indigenous resistance. While many segments of the railway were completed, the dream of a single railway that could extend from Egypt to South Africa was never achieved.

Example Question #52 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

The Ottoman Empire conquered land in Asia Minor with ____________ as its capital. The Empire ruled over lands in Africa and the Caucuses and acted as a bridge between civilizations in the East and West.

Possible Answers:

Baghdad

Ankara

Tehran

Damascus

Istanbul

Correct answer:

Istanbul

Explanation:

The Ottoman Empire fell at the end of WWI and became what is known today as Turkey. Using the powerful and historic port city of Istanbul as its capital, the Ottoman Empire extended over a vast area in the Middle East. This imperial power ruled lands as far off as in the horn of Africa and up into the Caucasus region. While the Ottoman Empire existed for several centuries, its power began to wain in the 19th century when it couldn’t compete with Western imperial powers and fell when it aligned itself with Germany in WWI.

Example Question #51 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

After a decisive victory in the Spanish-Cuban-American War, the United States took control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and ____________________.

Possible Answers:

the Philippines

Colombia

Ecuador

Japan

Panama

Correct answer:

the Philippines

Explanation:

The United States declared war against Spain in 1898 and the war ended in 1899. The United States easily defeated the Spanish fleets in Havana and Manila. The United States took control of these colonies from the Spanish despite the wish many local populations had to be independent. The Filipinos led a revolt against the U.S. starting in 1902. The justification for bringing these colonies under U.S. protection was to deter other powers such as the Japanese from extending their reach. This war marked the beginning of the United States’ imperial ambitions.

Example Question #51 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

This nation took control of Vietnam in the late nineteenth century.

Possible Answers:

Britain.

The United States of America.

Japan.

Spain.

France.

Correct answer:

France.

Explanation:

French trading interest in Vietnam had long been established when France formally took control of the country in 1885, following their victory over China in the Sino-French War. The region was named French Indochina and was administered by France until 1954.

Example Question #52 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

Russia gained its first warm-water port during the reign of __________.

Possible Answers:

Peter the Great

Ivan the Terrible

Catherine the Great

Alexander II

Ivan III

Correct answer:

Catherine the Great

Explanation:

Ever since the rule of Peter the Great it had been a stated goal of Russian foreign policy to gain a warm water port in the Black or Caspian Seas. Catherine the Great’s victory in the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774) gave Russia access to the Black Sea and allowed for the construction of the first warm-water port in the Russian empire. Russia’s desire for a warm-water port and control over the Black Sea has impacted Russian relations with her neighbors for centuries and is, most likely, a factor in the current occupation of Ukraine.

Example Question #53 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

Which of these was not a precipitating factor in the decline of the Ottoman Empire?

Possible Answers:

These were all factors in the decline of the Ottoman Empire

The growth of naval trading routes between Europe and the Far East

The rise of nationalism and independence movements throughout the empire

Territorial losses to Austria and Russia

The emergence of the United States and Japan as imperial powers

Correct answer:

The emergence of the United States and Japan as imperial powers

Explanation:

The decline of the Ottoman Empire was caused by all of these factors except the emergence of Japan and the United States as imperial powers. In the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire lost out on a great deal of wealth, as more and more trade between Europe and the Far East was being conducted via the ocean rather than over land through Ottoman territory. The empire also suffered as a result of territorial losses to Russia and Austria. Finally, the rise of nationalism led to growing independence movements throughout the Ottoman Empire.

Example Question #52 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

All of Africa was divided between European imperial powers in the latter years of the nineteenth century with the notable exceptions of __________.

Possible Answers:

Liberia and Ethiopia

South Africa and Tanzania

Egypt and Mozambique

Sudan and the Congo

Algeria and Morocco

Correct answer:

Liberia and Ethiopia

Explanation:

The only two major African nations not to be divided between the European imperial powers in the latter years of the nineteenth century were Liberia and Ethiopia. Liberia is a unique nation in the history of Africa. It was founded by the American Colonization Society in the mid-nineteenth century and promptly declared its independence (which was recognized by the United States during the Civil War). It became an independent republic where former slaves from the Americas and the Caribbean could re-settle in African society. It retained its independence throughout the European imperial era.

Example Question #54 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

Which of these is not a territory gained by the United States in the Spanish-American War?

Possible Answers:

Puerto Rico

Cuba

Guam

Hawaii

The Philippines

Correct answer:

Hawaii

Explanation:

All of these territories were ceded to the United States from Spain at the end of the Spanish-American War, except Hawaii. Hawaii was annexed by the United States in 1893 (an action the American government has since declared “unlawful”). Hawaii remained an American territory until 1959 when it became the fiftieth state admitted into the union.

Example Question #52 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

Why did the British and French governments try to prevent the decline of the Ottoman Empire?

Possible Answers:

To guard against Russian expansion and protect the balance of power

The three nations were old allies and their economies were neatly intertwined

All of these answers are correct

To ensure reliable access to raw resources such as oil and coal

To guard against Islamic fundamentalism and prevent instability in the region

Correct answer:

To guard against Russian expansion and protect the balance of power

Explanation:

European international relations in the nineteenth century were primarily geared around the balance of power - the idea that to preserve peace on the continent, no one power could be allowed to achieve hegemony over the other powers. This led the British and French governments to take a significant interest in the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The British and French feared that a declining Ottoman Empire would cede much of its territory to the growing Russian Empire, which would in turn threaten the balance of power on the European continent. This fear led directly to the Crimean War.

Example Question #55 : Empires, Colonialism, Imperialism, Decolonization, And Globalization 1750 To 1900

In which of these conflicts did the United States emerge as an imperialist power?

Possible Answers:

The Civil War

The Mexican-American War

World War I

World War II

The Spanish-American War

Correct answer:

The Spanish-American War

Explanation:

The nineteenth century in the United States was a century of isolationism. America largely ignored the rest of the world, and the rest of the world largely ignored America. This all changed with American victory in the Spanish-American War in 1898. This led to the emergence of the United States as an imperial power as America took control of countries like the Philippines and Cuba.

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