SAT II World History : 1900 C.E. to Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #4 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

What is the name of policy of openness and extension of individual freedoms initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union during the 1980s? 

Possible Answers:

Comintern

Perestroika

Duma

Glasnost

The Warsaw Pact

Correct answer:

Glasnost

Explanation:

During the 1980s, the Soviet Union underwent a revolution of sorts that paved the way for the fall of communism just a few years later. This revolution is generally referred to as "glasnost" and "perestroika." "Perestroika" was the restructuring of the political system. "Glasnost" was the opening of freedoms of speech and the press in Russian society.

Example Question #5 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

In the Russian Revolution, the Tsarist monarchy was replaced by __________.

Possible Answers:

oligarchy

capitalism

fascism

autocracy

communism

Correct answer:

communism

Explanation:

The Russian Revolution took place in 1917 during World War I. The tsar at the time, Nicholas II, was overthrown, and his government was replaced with a communist government that would grow into the USSR. When the Russian Revolution took place, the population was decimated from warfare and famine, and the new communist government pulled Russia out of the First World War.

Example Question #6 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

Which two groups comprised the Socialist movement in Russia at the time of Russian Revolution?

Possible Answers:

Leninists and Stalinists 

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks 

Muscovites and Siberians 

Leninists and Trotskyites

None of the other answer choices is correct.

Correct answer:

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks 

Explanation:

The Bolsheviks and Mensheviks were the two primary socialist political parties in 1917, the time of the revolution in Russia. The Mensheviks were lead by Alexander Kerenskii and the Bolsheviks were lead by Lenin. The Bolsheviks were the majority and differed from the Menshevik minority in their beliefs; Mensheviks favored a gradual change and opposed revolution, and the Bolsheviks desired absolute control for the Socialist Party and favored revolution as opposed to gradual change. The Bolsheviks and Lenin would emerge in control.

Example Question #7 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

The Great Purge took place in which country in the twentieth century?

Possible Answers:

The U.K.

The U.S.S.R.

Vietnam 

France

The U.S.

Correct answer:

The U.S.S.R.

Explanation:

The Great Purge was a campaign initiated by Stalin in 1934 to remove all “undesirable” elements from the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. In practical terms, it involved the removal of numerous government officials from their positions, the execution of much of the Red Army’s leadership, repression of the peasantry, and the execution and imprisonment of intellectuals. The Purge was primarily caused by Stalin’s desire to consolidate his control over the Communist Party and to remove any factions who might remain loyal to his chief challenger, Leon Trotsky.

Example Question #8 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

The policies of Glasnost and Perestroika were introduced by which Russian leader?

Possible Answers:

Nikita Khrushchev 

Joseph Stalin

Mikhail Gorbachev

Dmitry Medvedev  

Vladimir Lenin 

Correct answer:

Mikhail Gorbachev

Explanation:

When Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev rose to power in 1985 he set about reviving the stagnant Russian economy. He soon realized that the Soviet Union’s extensive economic problems could not be resolved without a complete restructuring of the political and social institutions of the U.S.S.R. To this end he adopted two famous policies called “glasnost” (openness) and “perestroika” (restructuring). “Perestroika” sought to replace Russia’s planned economy with something much more akin to a western economic system, whereas “glasnost” was designed to implement openness and accountability into the Soviet government. These two major reforms are usually credited with bringing about the end of communism and fracturing the Soviet Union. 

Example Question #9 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

Glasnost was primarily intended to __________.

Possible Answers:

Promote the interests of Russia in the Balkan region

Liberalize an increasingly orthodox and conservative Russian society

Support the growth of industry and agriculture in the Ukraine

Liberate the serfs from economic servitude

Provide greater transparency of the actions taken by the Soviet government 

Correct answer:

Provide greater transparency of the actions taken by the Soviet government 

Explanation:

“Glasnost” was a policy of openness implemented by Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev in the waning years of the Soviet Union. Its primary intention was to provide the public with greater access to information and ensure higher levels of accountability in the government.

Example Question #10 : Russian Revolution And The Cold War

In which months of 1917 was Russia beset by revolution?

Possible Answers:

March and December

March and November 

April and October 

April and September

April and November 

Correct answer:

March and November 

Explanation:

The Russian Revolution of 1917 is the collective term given to the process whereby the Tsarist regime was overthrown and replaced by the Soviet Union. Due to differences at the time between the European and Russian calendars, the two revolutions are called either “the February and October Revolutions” or “the March and November Revolutions.” The March revolution overthrew the Tsarist regime and replaced it with a provisional government; however, the Socialists were still not in complete control, and in November, Lenin overthrew the provisional government and established the Soviet Union.

Example Question #1 : The Ussr

The Brezhnev Doctrine stated that __________.

Possible Answers:

the Soviet Union could not survive without incorporating some elements of capitalism

communist countries were responsible for aiding the spread of Communism around the world

the key to winning the Cold War was to win the Space Race and to ensure technological superiority

the concentration of power in the hands of a few oligarchs was antithetical to the nature of communism and would ensure the demise of the Soviet Union

the Soviet Union would win the Cold War due to its massive supply of raw resources

Correct answer:

communist countries were responsible for aiding the spread of Communism around the world

Explanation:

The Russian Premier during much of the 1960s and all of the 1970s was Leonid Brezhnev. He argued, in what would come to be called the Brezhnev Doctrine, that all Communist states (particularly the Soviet Union) had a responsibility to aid the spread of Communism around the world. And, furthermore, to ensure that those states that had become Communist remained so.

Example Question #71 : 1900 C.E. To Present

Which of these figures was neither a ruler of the Soviet Union nor head of the Communist party?

Possible Answers:

Yuri Andropov

Konstantin Chernenko

Leon Trotsky

Vladimir Lenin

Josef Stalin

Correct answer:

Leon Trotsky

Explanation:

All of these men served as heads of the Communist party and/or Soviet government except for Leon Trotsky. Trotsky came to power in the same wave of revolution that ushered in Vladimir Lenin as leader of the country. However, Trotsky opposed the rise of Josef Stalin, and once Stalin assumed control of the country, Trotsky was exiled and a decade later, executed on Stalin's orders.

Example Question #72 : 1900 C.E. To Present

The democratization of the Soviet Union was promoted by __________.

Possible Answers:

Vladimir Putin

Mikhail Gorbachev

Nikita Kruschev

Josef Stalin

Vladimir Lenin

Correct answer:

Mikhail Gorbachev

Explanation:

In the 1980s, the Soviet Union was suffering from a series of agricultural and industrial failures, and its economy was in a shambolic state. In an attempt to allieviate some of the ills of society and provide a more open state, the Communist party leader Mikhail Gorbachev promoted a series of reforms called "glasnost" and "perestroika." They were designed to open up individual freedoms and promote democracy in the country.

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