SAT II World History : 1900 C.E. to Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #3 : The Cold War In Europe

Who was the Communist ruler of Yugoslavia during the Cold War in Europe?

Possible Answers:

Nikita Kruschev

Leonid Brezhnev

Marshal Tito

Gamal Abdel Nasser

Slobodan Milosevic

Correct answer:

Marshal Tito

Explanation:

Yugoslavia is a somewhat unique case in the history of the Cold War in Europe. Although essentially a Communist nation, the government of Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Tito, sought to distance itself from Soviet hegemony. Tito was an ardent Yugoslavian nationalist.

Example Question #4 : The Cold War In Europe

Which of the following were the first two European countries to be provided aid by the Truman Doctrine?

Possible Answers:

Germany and Poland

Greece and Turkey

France and Poland

Yugoslavia and Greece

Switzerland and Spain

Correct answer:

Greece and Turkey

Explanation:

The Truman Doctrine was the primary foreign policy of President Harry Truman in the years immediately after World War Two. The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States would provide economic and military aid to those countries facing a communist uprising to stop the spread of socialism and Soviet hegemony. The first two countries to be given American aid under the Truman Doctrine were Greece and Turkey, in 1947. Both countries were facing threats of Soviet hegemony and communist uprisings, so they were given financial and military support by the United States.

Example Question #91 : 1900 C.E. To Present

Which of these countries was non-aligned during the Cold War? 

Possible Answers:

France

Greece

Austria

Yugoslavia

Poland

Correct answer:

Yugoslavia

Explanation:

During the Cold War in Europe, the vast majority of countries fell into one of two groups. Western Europe was primarily capitalist and allied, through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), with the United States. NATO included France, Austria, Greece, Great Britain, West Germany, and several other countries. Communist Eastern Europe primarily fell under the influence of the Soviet Union, and was allied under the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact included Poland, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, and several other countries. Yugoslavia, itself a Communist nation, resisted the Soviet hegemony and, along with India, Egypt, and Indonesia, formed the non-alignment bloc of independent nations.

Example Question #5 : The Cold War In Europe

Which four nations were present at the Geneva Summit of 1955? 

Possible Answers:

The United States, China, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union

The United States, France, Great Britain, and West Germany

The United States, China, France, and Great Britain

Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union

France, West Germany, East Germany, and the Soviet Union

Correct answer:

Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union

Explanation:

The Geneva Convention was organized in 1955 with the stated aim of reducing global tension and beginning the process towards world peace. It failed in this mission, but it represented the first of many attempts during the Cold War to try and find an entente between the East and the West. It was attended by the political leaders of the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union.

Example Question #74 : Europe

In 1989, The Velvet Revolution was a non-violent transition from socialism to democracy in which European country? 

Possible Answers:

Ukraine

Hungary

Czechoslovakia

Yugoslavia

Albania

Correct answer:

Czechoslovakia

Explanation:

The Velvet Revolution can be seen as part of the wider trend of European history, in 1989 and 1990, when the communist regimes all over Europe and in the Soviet Union were crumbling and being replaced by capitalism and democracy. The Velvet Revolution took place in Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia and the Czech Republic) in the winter of 1989. It was an almost entirely non-violent revolution, inspired by student protests that led to a very swift resignation of the communist government.

Example Question #75 : Europe

Which of these Cold War-era European institutions is generally understood as the precursor to the European Union? 

Possible Answers:

European Organization for Mutual Protection

European Atomic Energy Community

European Coal and Steel Community

European Agriculture and Labor Community

European Community for Mutual Prosperity

Correct answer:

European Coal and Steel Community

Explanation:

The European Coal and Steel Community is generally considered as the initial step in the integration of European markets and politics under one umbrella organization, now called the European Union. It was initially proposed by the French government in 1950 as a means to prevent any future war in Europe between France and Germany. The aim was to make it so war was not just improbable, but rather "materially impossible" by integrating the economies of France and Germany so much that they were dependent on each other. By 1951, the ECSC was ratified by six countries: France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Luxembourg.

Example Question #5 : The Cold War In Europe

Which French political leader emerged from retirement to help abate the crisis brought about by the demise of the French Fourth Republic in 1958?

Possible Answers:

Leon Blum

Jacques Chirac

Pierre Laval

Charles de Gaulle

Michel Debre

Correct answer:

Charles de Gaulle

Explanation:

The French Fourth Republic was formed in the aftermath of World War Two, but immediately ran into the same problems of the French Third Republic: an Executive Branch that was too weak, with too many diverse political parties. The government was unable to rule effectively, and the Fourth Republic crumbled after just a decade. The wartime hero, Charles de Gaulle, was called back to office to preside over the transition to the French Fifth Republic, which has continued to this day.

Example Question #77 : Europe

What was the primary outcome of the Helsinki Accords in 1975?

Possible Answers:

The formation of the European Union

The Western recognition of Soviet territorial gains made in Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War Two

The Western repudiation of Soviet territorial gains made in Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War Two

A significant decline in the number of nuclear warheads held by the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, and the United States

The downfall of communism in Europe

Correct answer:

The Western recognition of Soviet territorial gains made in Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War Two

Explanation:

The Helsinki Accords were signed in 1975, by the United States and most of the European countries, to recognize the territorial gains made by the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe in the immediate aftermath of World War Two. It was seen, at the time, as a major diplomatic victory for the Soviet Union and a lessening of the tensions between the East and the West during the Cold War.

Example Question #91 : 1900 C.E. To Present

The Algerian Crisis led to the demise of __________.

Possible Answers:

Vichy France

Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy in Spain

The French Fourth Republic

The French Third Republic

Franco's fascist regime in Spain

Correct answer:

The French Fourth Republic

Explanation:

The Algerian Crisis occurred in 1958 when a group of French generals and Algerian politicians staged a coup in Algeria in an attempt to create an independent Algerian nation free of French control. It led directly to the demise of the already weakening French Fourth Republic and precipitated the rise of the French Fifth Republic.

Example Question #72 : Europe

Which of these best describes the Prague Spring?

Possible Answers:

An attempt by the capitalist government of the Czech Republic to return to communism that was swiftly crushed by the United States and West Germany

The moment when the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia and installed a puppet socialist regime that was loyal to the U.S.S.R.

An artistic movement in Czechoslovakia in the 1960s that heavily criticized the communist regime of the time and led to widespread student protests

An attempt by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia to reform the economic and political structure of the country to provide greater freedoms

The moment when communism finally fell in the Czechoslovakia during a non-violent revolution and was replaced by capitalism and democracy

Correct answer:

An attempt by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia to reform the economic and political structure of the country to provide greater freedoms

Explanation:

The Prague Spring took place in 1968, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, under the leadership of First Secretary Alexander Dubcek, attempted to reform the economic and political structure of the country to provide greater individual freedoms. The economy was partially decentralized and democratic rights were extended to many citizens; however, the Prague Spring was quashed within a year, when forces of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact invaded and put down the rebellion by force. The Prague Spring is considered a precursor to the Velvet Revolution of 1989, when communism was finally ended in Czechoslovakia in a peaceful and swift revolution.

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