AP Psychology : Cognition and Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Consciousness

Paul is participating in a sleep study. The EEG he is connected to shows delta waves while he is sleeping. Which of the following stages of sleep is Paul experiencing? 

Possible Answers:

Deep sleep stage

REM stage

Sleep onset stage

Stage two 

Correct answer:

Deep sleep stage

Explanation:

Delta waves are the slowest waves and occur during periods of deep sleep. It is also known as slow wave sleep. The answer would not be REM sleep, because it is characterized by saw-tooth waves. Sleep onset stage may be characterized by alpha (i.e. drowsy) and theta (i.e. light sleep) waves. Stage two of sleep typically shows k-complexes and sleep spindles, which are not seen with delta waves. 

Example Question #21 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following is the "deepest" stage of sleep and is most commonly associated with dreams? 

Possible Answers:

Stage 1 sleep

Stage 4 sleep

REM sleep

Stage 2 sleep

Correct answer:

REM sleep

Explanation:

REM (rapid eye-movement) sleep is the fifth and final stage of sleep during which the body is in it's deepest sleep. Dreaming is most frequent, most vivid, and most memorable during REM sleep; however, other dreaming can occur during the other sleep stages. 

Example Question #22 : Biology Of Sleep

Jim works in marketing for a large company. His company often requires that he travel across the U.S. and sometimes internationally across time zones. As a result, he often experiences jet lag. Which of the following is affects Jim the most?

Possible Answers:

Consciousness

REM sleep

Dreams

Circadian rhythm

Correct answer:

Circadian rhythm

Explanation:

The circadian rhythm is the 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and other species. Circadian rhythms are influential in regulating sleep, blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretions, and other physical functions. Although each of these could be affected, the most comprehensive answer is circadian rhythm. 

Example Question #23 : Biology Of Sleep

On average, a person repeats the sleep cycle about four times over the course of a night. Which of the following happens to the REM sleep period as the cycle repeats?

Possible Answers:

It gets longer each time

It does not change duroing the sleep cycle

It gets shorter each time

It becomes less associated with dreams each time

Correct answer:

It gets longer each time

Explanation:

Over the course of the four repetitions, REM sleep starts as a fairly brief period of about 45 minutes. By the end of the fourth repetition, the REM period of the sleep cycle is substantially longer. Dreaming is most associated with REM sleep, and dreaming during REM stays the same over the course of the sleep cycle. 

Example Question #21 : Consciousness

Inadequate sleep is a risk factor for which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Diabetes

All of these

Obesity

Impaired immune functioning 

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Sleep deprivation and partial sleep deprivation have many negative consequences on our physical and mental well-being. Studies have shown that people who consistently sleep less than 7 hours are at increased risk for overall mortality. 

Example Question #22 : Consciousness

Which of the following stages of sleep and associated brain waves are correctly matched?

Possible Answers:

Stage 5: NREM sleep

Stage 4: Beta waves

Stage 3: Theta waves

Stage 1: Alpha Waves

Stage 2: REM sleep

Correct answer:

Stage 1: Alpha Waves

Explanation:

Sleep can be divided into REM and NREM sleep. Stages 1 to 4 are characterized by non-rapid eye movement (i.e. NREM) sleep. Stage 5 is characterized by rapid eye movement (i.e. REM). Beta waves occur during normal wakefulness and are not associated with sleep. As the body begins to fall asleep and enters stage 1, alpha waves become present. During stage 2 theta waves and sleep spindles emerge. During stages 3 and 4, delta waves are present.

Example Question #551 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

In which of the following stages of sleep are the brain waves the slowest?

Possible Answers:

Stage 4

Stage 3

REM

Stage 2

Stage 1

Correct answer:

Stage 4

Explanation:

"Stage 4" has the slowest brain waves. This is because it's the deepest stage of sleep. The brain, if awoken in this stage, would take a long time to be able to perform certain actions because those brain waves have to be "sped up" to be able to engage in conscious action. 

Example Question #25 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following is not true regarding night terrors?

Possible Answers:

Night terrors happen in Stage 4 sleep

During a night terror, a person may walk or sit up

Night terrors are not the same as nightmares

Night terrors usually have a story or plot to them

Night terrors happen mostly to children

Correct answer:

Night terrors usually have a story or plot to them

Explanation:

"Night terrors usually have a story or plot to them" is the correct answer. This is the only answer that is not true. Nightmares usually have a story or a plot to them, not night terrors. 

Example Question #26 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following does not occur during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep?

Possible Answers:

Less control over breathing

Voluntary movement of the eyes

Vivid dreams

Low muscle tone throughout the body

Random movement of the eyes

Correct answer:

Voluntary movement of the eyes

Explanation:

During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the random movement of the eyes is not voluntary because the person is soundly sleeping. REM sleep is essential for humans to feel well-rested and thrive during waking hours.

Example Question #22 : Consciousness

Wanda has chronically had poor sleep habits. She often remains awake in bed for hours before being able to fall asleep and sometimes becomes worried about the next day as she attempts to rest. In addition to having difficulty falling asleep, Wanda wakes up in the middle of the night several times per week and is unable to fall back asleep most of the time. Her lack of adequate quality sleep is starting to cause her problems at work and she is becoming very frustrated. Wanda is most likely suffering from which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Hypersomnia

Sleep apnea

Insomnia

Narcolepsy

Correct answer:

Insomnia

Explanation:

Wanda probably has insomnia. Insomnia refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep stemming from difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or persistently waking up early. Hypersomnia is the opposite of insomnia when someone gets too much sleep. Sleep apnea is a condition when respiration is periodically stopped during sleep. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by sudden irresistible feelings of sleepiness during normal waking periods. 

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