AP Human Geography : AP Human Geography

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #14 : Population Growth & Decline

In countries like the United States, which experience relatively low levels of natural increase rate, population growth is primarily driven by __________.

Possible Answers:

asylum seekers

immigration

refugees

emigration

None of these answers are correct; the population of the United States is declining

Correct answer:

immigration

Explanation:

In highly developed countries like the United States the natural increase rate is generally very low, it might even be negative. But, the natural increase rate only reflects the changes in population caused by births and deaths; it does not consider immigration and emigration. Much of the population growth in the United States is driven by immigration and the fact that newly arrived immigrants are much more likely to have large families.

Example Question #61 : Population & Migration

Which of these countries is currently undergoing stage three of the demographic transition process?

Possible Answers:

Sweden

Morocco

South Sudan

Denmark

Nigeria

Correct answer:

Morocco

Explanation:

In stage three of the demographic transition model a country’s death rate has already fallen and it’s birth rate is in the process of falling as well. The death rate in Morocco has fallen dramatically in the half-century since independence, but the birth rate has only recently begun to fall to match this decline. Nigeria and South Sudan are both still in stage two of the demographic transition process (falling death rates, steady birth rates); Sweden and Denmark are both in stage four of the demographic transition process (low death rates, low birth rates).

Example Question #11 : Theories Of Population Growth & Decline

Which of these countries is currently undergoing stage four of the demographic transition model?

Possible Answers:

Kenya

Brazil

Japan

China

Colombia

Correct answer:

Japan

Explanation:

All of these countries are in either stage two or stage three (the transitional stages) of the demographic transition model, except Japan, which is in stage four. Stage four is generally considered the final stage of the demographic transition model. In stage four, the birth rates and the death rates are both low and generally steady. In Japan, the death rate is very low and the birth rate is very low, leading to a steady population and perhaps even a slight population decline.

Example Question #17 : Population Growth & Decline

The natural increase rate is determined by __________.

Possible Answers:

subtracting the number of births from the number of deaths in a given region

subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births in a given region

adding the number of births and immigrants together and then subtracting the number of deaths and emigrants in a given region

adding the number of births and immigrants together in a given region

subtracting the number of emigrants from the number of immigrants in a given region

Correct answer:

subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births in a given region

Explanation:

The natural increase rate does not consider immigration or emigration. It is determined by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births in a given region. So, if there are ten thousand deaths and thirteen thousand births in a given region, in a given time period, the natural increase rate is three thousand.

Example Question #18 : Population Growth & Decline

When discussing demographic statistics, the “doubling time” refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

the number of children born to the average woman in a region over the course of her lifetime

the number of children who died before their first birthday per thousand births in a region

the amount of time it takes for the total fertility rate of a region to double

the amount of time that it takes for declining birth rates to catch up to declining death rates in a region

the amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double

Correct answer:

the amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double

Explanation:

The “doubling time” refers to the amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double. The number is based on the annual increase in population as a percentage of the original population. An annual increase of one percent of the population will cause the population to have a “doubling time” of seventy years. An annual increase of four percent of the population will lead to a “doubling time” of sixteen years. This might seem incredibly fast, and indeed it is. The reason for this is that population compounds as it grows, much like compound interest.

Example Question #62 : Ap Human Geography

Which of the following does not affect the “natural increase rate” of a country?

Possible Answers:

Gender equality

Cultural customs

All of the other answers affect the “natural increase rate” of a country.

Government policies

Access to education

Correct answer:

All of the other answers affect the “natural increase rate” of a country.

Explanation:

All of these answer choices affect the “natural increase rate” of a country. The following are general rules, of which there are some exceptions: as access to education becomes more universal the “natural increase rate” will decline; government policies that institute population control programs will cause the “natural increase rate” to decline; the more empowered women are in a society, and the more gender equality there is, the lower the “natural increase rate.” Finally, cultural customs—like emphasizing the importance of motherhood—can have significant impacts on the “natural increase rate.”

Example Question #20 : Population Growth & Decline

The study of human population is called __________.

Possible Answers:

anthropology

demography

geography

geology

sociology

Correct answer:

demography

Explanation:

Demography is the study of human population. Specifically, demography generally involves the study of statistics concerning things like birth and death rates, fertility and public health, income, ethnicity, and outbreaks of disease.

Example Question #61 : Population & Migration

Which of the following arguments can be made in opposition to Malthus’ theories on the “principle of population”?

I. Population growth will slow over time due to availability of contraception and the implementation of population control policies.

II. Technological innovation can lead to dramatic improvements in agricultural production.

III. Population growth will continue to rise due to declining death rates and improved access to education.

 

Possible Answers:

II only

I only

III only

I and II only

I, II, and III

Correct answer:

I and II only

Explanation:

Malthus’ “principle of population” states that eventually, population growth will exceed the capacity of agricultural production, which will lead to widespread starvation and suffering. Over the years, many detractors have proposed various arguments in opposition to Malthus’ theories. Two of the most prominent arguments are that a) population growth will slow due to the availability of contraception and the desire of governments to limit growth and b) technological innovation can lead to dramatic improvements in agricultural production, which allow it to keep up with the growth in population.

Example Question #22 : Theories Of Population Growth & Decline

According to Thomas Malthus population grows __________, whereas food production grows __________.

Possible Answers:

exponentially . . . parabolically

geometrically . . . arithmetically

arithmetically . . . linearly

linearly . . . exponentially

parabolically . . . geometrically

Correct answer:

geometrically . . . arithmetically

Explanation:

Thomas Malthus was an economist during the Enlightenment in Europe. In the late eighteenth century he wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) which argues that food production increases arithmetically (linearly) and that population grows geometrically (exponentially). According to Malthus this would mean that eventually the population growth would exceed the growth in food production causing widespread starvation and suffering. Malthus’ arguments continue to be widely influential today.

Example Question #61 : Population & Migration

Why is the Demographic Accounting Equation more comprehensive than the Natural Increase Rate”?

Possible Answers:

It ignores the Total Fertility Rate, which can be illusory.

None of these answers are correct; the “natural increase rate” is more comprehensive than the “demographic accounting equation.”

It considers the Crude Birth Rate and the Crude Death Rate.

It uses past examples and evidence to project into the future.

It takes into account immigration and emigration.

Correct answer:

It takes into account immigration and emigration.

Explanation:

The Natural Increase Rate and the Demographic Accounting Equation are both calculations used to determine the current or projected population growth of a region. The Demographic Accounting Equation is more comprehensive because it takes into account immigration and emigration, whereas the Natural Increase Rate only takes into account the birth and death rates.

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