AP Human Geography : AP Human Geography

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #4 : Population Growth & Decline

What is the name of the theory that states that as the distance between two places increases, the interaction between those two places decreases?

Possible Answers:

Cyclical migration

Orientalism

Distance decay

Finite-Space Theory

The Factory Effect

Correct answer:

Distance decay

Explanation:

Distance decay is the name of the theory that states that as the distance between two places increases, the interaction between those two places decreases. This is not necessarily determined by the actual geographic distance between two places, but might instead be determined by how easy it is to access one place from another place. For example, London and New York are much further away than London and the Shetland Islands (off the Northern coast of Scotland), but it takes less time to get from London to New York in the modern era.

Example Question #1 : Population Growth & Decline

Many geographers and demographers believe that a fifth phase should be added to the demographic transition model to reflect __________.

Possible Answers:

the rapid growth of some countries in Africa and South Asia in the last few decades

declining population in some developed countries

None of the other answers is correct; geographers and demographers almost universally support the four-phase demographic transition model

the impact of emigration on the declining populations of some developing countries

the impact of immigration on the continued growth of some countries like the United States and Germany

Correct answer:

declining population in some developed countries

Explanation:

The demographic transition model demonstrates the changing nature of birth and death rates as related to the economic development of various countries. In the first phase, birth and death rates are both high; in the second phase, death rates fall, but birth rates remain high (leading to rapid growth); in the third phase, birth rates fall to a level similar to death rate and population growth begins to slow; in the fourth phase, birth rates and death rates are fairly stable and very low, which usually leads to slow population growth. Many demographers have in recent years argued for a fifth phase that reflects when death rates begin to outstrip birth rates again, leading to a negative “natural increase rate.” It could be argued that Italy and Japan (to take two examples) are currently in this speculated “fifth phase.”

Example Question #1 : Theories Of Population Growth & Decline

Which of these countries is currently undergoing stage two of the demographic transition model?

Possible Answers:

Estonia

China

Russia

Bangladesh

The United States of America

Correct answer:

Bangladesh

Explanation:

In stage two of the demographic transition model, the death rate is falling due to improved access to education, health care, shelter, sustenance, etc., but the birth rate continues to be high. This causes massive population growth. This is currently happening in Bangladesh and many of the more developed countries in Africa and South Asia.

Example Question #1 : Population Growth & Decline

A rectangular population pyramid tells you that the population of that country is __________.

Possible Answers:

falling rapidly

completely stable

growing rapidly

falling slightly, but staying mostly steady

growing slightly, but staying mostly steady

Correct answer:

growing slightly, but staying mostly steady

Explanation:

A population pyramid is used to show the percentage of the population who fit into various age groups. If a population pyramid is rectangular, that means the bottom section (where babies are represented), the middle section (where working adults are represented), and the top section (where older people who are often retired are represented) are roughly similar sizes. This generally means the population of a country is close to steady, but is possibly growing slightly. A country like Norway or the United Kingdom would have a rectangular population pyramid.

Example Question #1 : Population Growth & Decline

Which of these theories about population growth in the twenty-first century is most widely believed by geographers and demographers?

Possible Answers:

The rate of population growth will continue escalating in the twenty-first century

Only through strict national population control policies can the rate of population growth be slowed in the twenty-first century

The population will decline considerably in the twenty-first century

The rate of population growth will slow considerably in the twenty-first century

The rate of population growth will remain fairly static throughout the twenty-first century

Correct answer:

The rate of population growth will slow considerably in the twenty-first century

Explanation:

Most geographers and demographers agree that over the course of the twenty-first century, the population growth will slow considerably. This is based on the belief that the current rapid population growth is an anomaly in Earth’s history and that the planet cannot sustain such rapid growth for another century.

Example Question #9 : Population Growth & Decline

The demographic transition model primarily equates the rate of population growth with levels of __________.

Possible Answers:

economic development

government interference

gender equality

agricultural production

higher education

Correct answer:

economic development

Explanation:

The demographic transition model primarily equates the rate of population growth with the various levels of economic development around the world. The first phase is “preindustrial” and the fourth phase is “industrial.” This model has been criticized by many demographers and geographers as being too simplistic.

Example Question #2 : Population Growth & Decline

The crude birth rate (CBR) refers to which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The number of children who survive the first five years of their lives per thousand births

The number of infants who survive the first year of their lives per thousand births

The number of births per thousand people in a given period of time

None of the other answers is correct

The average number of children born to a woman during the course of her lifetime in a given region

Correct answer:

The number of births per thousand people in a given period of time

Explanation:

The crude birth rate (CBR) is an important statistic that describes the number of births per thousand people in a given period of time (usually a year). The average number of children born to a woman during the course of her lifetime is called the total fertility rate (TFR).

Example Question #11 : Population Growth & Decline

The Demographic Transition Model suggests that various regions experience a movement from __________ to __________.

Possible Answers:

high birth rates and low death rates . . . low birth rates and high death rates

high birth rates and high death rates . . . low birth rates and low death rates

low birth rates and high death rates . . . high birth rates and low death rates

high birth rates and high death rates; high birth rates and low death rates

low birth rates and low death rates . . . high birth rates and high death rates

Correct answer:

high birth rates and high death rates . . . low birth rates and low death rates

Explanation:

The Demographic Transition Model can be divided into pre-industrial, transitional, and industrial segments. A pre-industrial country (like Somalia, for example) will have high birth rates and high death rates. This is the starting place for all of humanity—many people being born and many people quickly dying. The next phase is transitional; in this phase, first the death rate starts dropping, and then shortly thereafter, the birth rate begins to drop too. The final phase is called "industrial." When a country is well-developed and women are relatively liberated, then birth rates and death rates remain fairly stable and much, much lower than in a pre-industrial society.

Example Question #12 : Population Growth & Decline

An Essay on the Principle of Population was written by __________.

Possible Answers:

David Ricardo

Karl Marx

Adam Smith

René Descartes

Thomas Malthus

Correct answer:

Thomas Malthus

Explanation:

An Essay on the Principle of Population, published at the end of the eighteenth century, was written by Thomas Malthus. In this essay, Malthus argues that the rate of food production grows arithmetically, whereas population grows exponentially. Malthus argued that this would lead to a situation where population outstrips food production, leading to widespread famine and starvation. His writings are extremely influential even to this day; however, many geographers dispute his conclusions and argue that technology augments food production, allowing it to keep up with population growth. It remains to be seen whether Malthus’ predictions will come true in the twenty-first century or beyond.

Example Question #51 : Ap Human Geography

The “demographic accounting equation” is used to __________.

Possible Answers:

None of these answers are correct

incorporate Crude Birth Rates and Crude Death Rates into the “natural increase rate”

identify the reasons behind population growth

determine the rate of population growth throughout history

predict future population growth

Correct answer:

predict future population growth

Explanation:

The “demographic accounting equation” is used to predict future population growth for a region or country. It is determined first by calculating the “natural increase rate,” which is the number of births minus the number of deaths. Then by adding the “natural increase rate” to the “net migration number.” The “net migration number” is the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants in a given time period.

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