ACT Science : How to find research summary in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #197 : Act Science

Bacterial resistance is a common issue encountered in various infections. Scientists have attributed this phenomenon to the overuse of anti-bacterial sanitizers and prescription antibiotics. Two groups of researchers performed studies to test bacterial resistance.

Study 1

Researchers in this study state that bacterial resistance is the result of bacterial plasmid translocation. Bacteria carry their genes on circular rings of bacterial DNA and on small, physically separate molecules known as plasmids. Plasmids are unique because they are replicons that are capable of replication autonomously within a suitable host. Researchers radioactively marked plasmids in bacterial specimens and noted that they could be easily transmitted from one bacterium to another via horizontal gene transfer. They then observed that the genes transferred from the plasmid could be incorporated into the bacteria’s genetic makeup. These genetic alterations enhanced survivorship within the environment and promoted resistance to antibiotics. They concluded that plasmids carry genes important for survival and facilitate bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

Study 2

Researchers in this study state that resistance is the result of the misuse of antibiotics. Researchers administered various antibiotics to a culture of E. coli and studied their effects over time (Figure 1). They concluded that bacterial resistance is the result of natural selection. In other words, the strongest bacteria survive antibiotics and reproduce, which produces anitbiotic-resistant offspring bacteria. 

Bacterial_fixed

Figure 1

How were plasmids marked and traced in Study 1?

Possible Answers:

Nitrogenous base configuration of DNA

Radioactive markers

Gene sequences

Careful observation

Correct answer:

Radioactive markers

Explanation:

The passage states that the transmittance of plasmid genetic material was observed utilizing radoactive markers. None of the other choices are supported by the passage.

Example Question #198 : Act Science

Bacterial resistance is a common issue encountered in various infections. Scientists have attributed this phenomenon to the overuse of anti-bacterial sanitizers and prescription antibiotics. Two groups of researchers performed studies to test bacterial resistance.

Study 1

Researchers in this study state that bacterial resistance is the result of bacterial plasmid translocation. Bacteria carry their genes on circular rings of bacterial DNA and on small, physically separate molecules known as plasmids. Plasmids are unique because they are replicons that are capable of replication autonomously within a suitable host. Researchers radioactively marked plasmids in bacterial specimens and noted that they could be easily transmitted from one bacterium to another via horizontal gene transfer. They then observed that the genes transferred from the plasmid could be incorporated into the bacteria’s genetic makeup. These genetic alterations enhanced survivorship within the environment and promoted resistance to antibiotics. They concluded that plasmids carry genes important for survival and facilitate bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

Study 2

Researchers in this study state that resistance is the result of the misuse of antibiotics. Researchers administered various antibiotics to a culture of E. coli and studied their effects over time (Figure 1). They concluded that bacterial resistance is the result of natural selection. In other words, the strongest bacteria survive antibiotics and reproduce, which produces anitbiotic-resistant offspring bacteria. 

Bacterial_fixed

Figure 1

E. coli is commonly found in the digestive tract of mammals and helps facilitate digestion. It is beneficial under normal conditions but can cause illness if populations grow out of control. Given the information present in Study 2, would it be wise to administer a patient penicillin for more than 15 days?

Possible Answers:

No, E. coli facilitates digestion; therfore, it would be unwise to administer too much penicillin because it could complicate normal digestion.

No, E. coli is needed for digestion and should be enabled to grow rapidly and uninhibited.

Yes, E. coli can cause bacterial infections and should be removed from the body at all costs.

Yes, E. coli is unaffected by penicillin; therefore, the antibiotic would not disrupt its physiological functions. 

Correct answer:

No, E. coli facilitates digestion; therfore, it would be unwise to administer too much penicillin because it could complicate normal digestion.

Explanation:

Since too much E. coli bacteria could promote illness but a small amount is required to facilitate digestion, a doctor should provide a treatment regime that would restore balance to the number of the bacteria in a patient's system. It would be unwise to either promote E. coli's continued growth or kill them off entirely.

Example Question #199 : Act Science

Bacterial resistance is a common issue encountered in various infections. Scientists have attributed this phenomenon to the overuse of anti-bacterial sanitizers and prescription antibiotics. Two groups of researchers performed studies to test bacterial resistance.

Study 1

Researchers in this study state that bacterial resistance is the result of bacterial plasmid translocation. Bacteria carry their genes on circular rings of bacterial DNA and on small, physically separate molecules known as plasmids. Plasmids are unique because they are replicons that are capable of replication autonomously within a suitable host. Researchers radioactively marked plasmids in bacterial specimens and noted that they could be easily transmitted from one bacterium to another via horizontal gene transfer. They then observed that the genes transferred from the plasmid could be incorporated into the bacteria’s genetic makeup. These genetic alterations enhanced survivorship within the environment and promoted resistance to antibiotics. They concluded that plasmids carry genes important for survival and facilitate bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

Study 2

Researchers in this study state that resistance is the result of the misuse of antibiotics. Researchers administered various antibiotics to a culture of E. coli and studied their effects over time (Figure 1). They concluded that bacterial resistance is the result of natural selection. In other words, the strongest bacteria survive antibiotics and reproduce, which produces anitbiotic-resistant offspring bacteria. 

Bacterial_fixed

Figure 1

How are plasmids transmitted from one bacterium to another?

Possible Answers:

Horizontal gene transfer

Genetic mutation

Translocation

Reproduction

Correct answer:

Horizontal gene transfer

Explanation:

The passage states that genes in plasmids are transmitted from one bacterium to another via horizontal gene transfer. The other answers are incorrect because they are not supported by the passage.

Example Question #200 : Act Science

Hormones are biochemical messengers utilized by multicellular organisms to coordinate development and behaviors. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system and are key components in signal cascades that result in various essential activities. Plants, like animals, depend on hormonal signals for physiological adaptation and development.

There are several hormones that are primarily involved with seed germination and sprout formation. Abscisic acid, in high concentrations, prevents seed germination. Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, the formation of buds, and the development of roots. Cytokinins influence cell division and shoot formation. Gibberellins promote seed germination as well as flowering and growth post-germination.

Study 1

Several scientists soaked Zea mays (corn) seeds in solutions rich in certain plant hormones. They observed and recorded seed germination and development over a three week period. At the end of the three week period, they measured coleoptile (the protective extension of sprout) and radicle (the primary root) growth of the seeds and plotted them in a graph (Figure 1).

Germination1

Figure 1

Study 2

Scientists exposed Zea mays (corn) seeds to several hormonal treatments and measured coleoptile growth over a 14-day period and recorded their observations in a line graph (Figure 2). The groups consisted of a control exposed to saline solution, a treatment group exposed to a 0.15 millimolar solution of abscisic acid, and a treatment group exposed to a solution that included 0.15 millimoles of abscisic acid and 0.20 millimoles of gibberellins.

Germination_2

Figure 2

A fire devastates an area. Seeds begin to germinate several months later. Scientists study the hormonal composition on the germinating seeds. Which hormone would the scientists of Study 2 expect to find in the greatest level?

Possible Answers:

Abscisic acid

Gibberellins

Cytokinins

No hormones would be found in the seeds.

Correct answer:

Gibberellins

Explanation:

The passage states that gibberellins promote seed germination, so it would be safe to assume that gibberellins would be found in the greatest levels in germinating seeds. This is supported by the data from Study 2, which shows that abscisic acid inhibits germination and gibberellins counteract this inhibition.

Example Question #61 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Hormones are biochemical messengers utilized by multicellular organisms to coordinate development and behaviors. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system and are key components in signal cascades that result in various essential activities. Plants, like animals, depend on hormonal signals for physiological adaptation and development.

There are several hormones that are primarily involved with seed germination and sprout formation. Abscisic acid, in high concentrations, prevents seed germination. Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, the formation of buds, and the development of roots. Cytokinins influence cell division and shoot formation. Gibberellins promote seed germination as well as flowering and growth post-germination.

Study 1

Several scientists soaked Zea mays (corn) seeds in solutions rich in certain plant hormones. They observed and recorded seed germination and development over a three week period. At the end of the three week period, they measured coleoptile (the protective extension of sprout) and radicle (the primary root) growth of the seeds and plotted them in a graph (Figure 1).

Germination1

Figure 1

Study 2

Scientists exposed Zea mays (corn) seeds to several hormonal treatments and measured coleoptile growth over a 14-day period and recorded their observations in a line graph (Figure 2). The groups consisted of a control exposed to saline solution, a treatment group exposed to a 0.15 millimolar solution of abscisic acid, and a treatment group exposed to a solution that included 0.15 millimoles of abscisic acid and 0.20 millimoles of gibberellins.

Germination_2

Figure 2

What biological system secretes hormones in multicellular organisms?

Possible Answers:

Endocrine system

Nervous system

Circulatory system

Skeletal system

Correct answer:

Endocrine system

Explanation:

The passage states that the endocrine system secretes hormones. The other choices are not supported by the passage. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system and initiate signal cascades that result in physiological adaptation or behavioral change.

Example Question #62 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Hormones are biochemical messengers utilized by multicellular organisms to coordinate development and behaviors. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system and are key components in signal cascades that result in various essential activities. Plants, like animals, depend on hormonal signals for physiological adaptation and development.

There are several hormones that are primarily involved with seed germination and sprout formation. Abscisic acid, in high concentrations, prevents seed germination. Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, the formation of buds, and the development of roots. Cytokinins influence cell division and shoot formation. Gibberellins promote seed germination as well as flowering and growth post-germination.

Study 1

Several scientists soaked Zea mays (corn) seeds in solutions rich in certain plant hormones. They observed and recorded seed germination and development over a three week period. At the end of the three week period, they measured coleoptile (the protective extension of sprout) and radicle (the primary root) growth of the seeds and plotted them in a graph (Figure 1).

Germination1

Figure 1

Study 2

Scientists exposed Zea mays (corn) seeds to several hormonal treatments and measured coleoptile growth over a 14-day period and recorded their observations in a line graph (Figure 2). The groups consisted of a control exposed to saline solution, a treatment group exposed to a 0.15 millimolar solution of abscisic acid, and a treatment group exposed to a solution that included 0.15 millimoles of abscisic acid and 0.20 millimoles of gibberellins.

Germination_2

Figure 2

The proper term for the shoot or sprout section of the germinating seed is which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Stamen

Radicle

Coleoptile

Pistil

Correct answer:

Coleoptile

Explanation:

The text for Study 1 describes the coleoptile as the protective extension of sprout. The coleoptile is the extension of the germinated seed that will become the stem. The stamen and pisitl are sex organs of the plant and incorrect choices.

Example Question #63 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Hormones are biochemical messengers utilized by multicellular organisms to coordinate development and behaviors. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system and are key components in signal cascades that result in various essential activities. Plants, like animals, depend on hormonal signals for physiological adaptation and development.

There are several hormones that are primarily involved with seed germination and sprout formation. Abscisic acid, in high concentrations, prevents seed germination. Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, the formation of buds, and the development of roots. Cytokinins influence cell division and shoot formation. Gibberellins promote seed germination as well as flowering and growth post-germination.

Study 1

Several scientists soaked Zea mays (corn) seeds in solutions rich in certain plant hormones. They observed and recorded seed germination and development over a three week period. At the end of the three week period, they measured coleoptile (the protective extension of sprout) and radicle (the primary root) growth of the seeds and plotted them in a graph (Figure 1).

Germination1

Figure 1

Study 2

Scientists exposed Zea mays (corn) seeds to several hormonal treatments and measured coleoptile growth over a 14-day period and recorded their observations in a line graph (Figure 2). The groups consisted of a control exposed to saline solution, a treatment group exposed to a 0.15 millimolar solution of abscisic acid, and a treatment group exposed to a solution that included 0.15 millimoles of abscisic acid and 0.20 millimoles of gibberellins.

Germination_2

Figure 2

The proper term for the root section of the germinating seed is which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Coleoptile

Radicle

Stamen

Endocrine system

Correct answer:

Radicle

Explanation:

The text for Study 1 describes the radicle as the primary root of the germinating seed. The radicle is the first of the root formations that will become the foundation for the germinating plant. Stamen are male sex parts of a flower and the endocrine system is responsible for the release of hormones.

Example Question #64 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is frequently utilized for genetic studies due to its simple food requirements, hardy nature, and because it completes its life cycle within 12 days at room temperature. This particular fly species has four pairs of chromosomes with traits that have been studied and observed to be inherited in a Mendelian fashion.

The predictive capacity of Mendelian genetics depends on traits whose physiological characteristics, know as phenotypes, are determined by genetic combinations of alleles, known as genotypes. The exhibition of observable traits is determined by the combination of two alleles for a specific characteristic. For example, the dominant allele for the wild type red eye color is E and the recessive sepia-brown color is e. Likewise, the dominant allele for long wings is W and the recessive allele for short wings is w. When a dominant allele is present with a recessive one, the organism physically exhibits the trait of the dominant allele and the organism is known as heterozygous for that trait. If an organism has two dominant or two recessive alleles for a particular trait, it is known as homozygous for that trait. Only when two recessive alleles are present does the organism physically exhibit the trait of the recessive allele. Heterozygous individuals are often known as carriers because the dominant allele phenotype masks the recessive allele phenotype and the organism can carry the recessive allele without exhibiting any of its physical traits.

Study 1

A researcher wants to study the inheritance of eye color in fruit flies. The scientist mates a homozygous recessive (ee) group with a homozygous dominant (EE) group in order to obtain the F1 Generation. Two members of the F1 Generation were then mated in order to obtain the F2 Generation (Table 1).

Eye

Table 1

Study 2

A researcher decided to perform a dihybrid cross of fruit flies possessing red eyes and long wings with fruit flies possessing sepia-brown eyes and short wings. The scientist bred homozygous dominant flies with homozygous recessive flies in the F1 Generation. The members of the F1 Generation were then mated in order to obtain the F2 Generation (Table 2).

Dihybrid

Table 2

At what temperature do fruit flies complete their lifespan in 12 days?

Possible Answers:

Room temperature

100°C

55°C

0°C

Correct answer:

Room temperature

Explanation:

The first paragraph stated that the flies complete their lifespan in 12 days at room temperature. The scientific standard definition for room temperature is 20°C. 100°C is the boiling point of water and 0°C is the freezing point of water.

Example Question #65 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is frequently utilized for genetic studies due to its simple food requirements, hardy nature, and because it completes its life cycle within 12 days at room temperature. This particular fly species has four pairs of chromosomes with traits that have been studied and observed to be inherited in a Mendelian fashion.

The predictive capacity of Mendelian genetics depends on traits whose physiological characteristics, know as phenotypes, are determined by genetic combinations of alleles, known as genotypes. The exhibition of observable traits is determined by the combination of two alleles for a specific characteristic. For example, the dominant allele for the wild type red eye color is E and the recessive sepia-brown color is e. Likewise, the dominant allele for long wings is W and the recessive allele for short wings is w. When a dominant allele is present with a recessive one, the organism physically exhibits the trait of the dominant allele and the organism is known as heterozygous for that trait. If an organism has two dominant or two recessive alleles for a particular trait, it is known as homozygous for that trait. Only when two recessive alleles are present does the organism physically exhibit the trait of the recessive allele. Heterozygous individuals are often known as carriers because the dominant allele phenotype masks the recessive allele phenotype and the organism can carry the recessive allele without exhibiting any of its physical traits.

Study 1

A researcher wants to study the inheritance of eye color in fruit flies. The scientist mates a homozygous recessive (ee) group with a homozygous dominant (EE) group in order to obtain the F1 Generation. Two members of the F1 Generation were then mated in order to obtain the F2 Generation (Table 1).

Eye

Table 1

Study 2

A researcher decided to perform a dihybrid cross of fruit flies possessing red eyes and long wings with fruit flies possessing sepia-brown eyes and short wings. The scientist bred homozygous dominant flies with homozygous recessive flies in the F1 Generation. The members of the F1 Generation were then mated in order to obtain the F2 Generation (Table 2).

Dihybrid

Table 2

How many pairs of chromosomes does the typical Drosophila melanogaster possess?

Possible Answers:

7

13

23

4

Correct answer:

4

Explanation:

The first paragraph of the passage states that the common fruit fly possesses four pairs of chromosomes. A human possesses 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Example Question #66 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is frequently utilized for genetic studies due to its simple food requirements, hardy nature, and because it completes its life cycle within 12 days at room temperature. This particular fly species has four pairs of chromosomes with traits that have been studied and observed to be inherited in a Mendelian fashion.

The predictive capacity of Mendelian genetics depends on traits whose physiological characteristics, know as phenotypes, are determined by genetic combinations of alleles, known as genotypes. The exhibition of observable traits is determined by the combination of two alleles for a specific characteristic. For example, the dominant allele for the wild type red eye color is E and the recessive sepia-brown color is e. Likewise, the dominant allele for long wings is W and the recessive allele for short wings is w. When a dominant allele is present with a recessive one, the organism physically exhibits the trait of the dominant allele and the organism is known as heterozygous for that trait. If an organism has two dominant or two recessive alleles for a particular trait, it is known as homozygous for that trait. Only when two recessive alleles are present does the organism physically exhibit the trait of the recessive allele. Heterozygous individuals are often known as carriers because the dominant allele phenotype masks the recessive allele phenotype and the organism can carry the recessive allele without exhibiting any of its physical traits.

Study 1

A researcher wants to study the inheritance of eye color in fruit flies. The scientist mates a homozygous recessive (ee) group with a homozygous dominant (EE) group in order to obtain the F1 Generation. Two members of the F1 Generation were then mated in order to obtain the F2 Generation (Table 1).

Eye

Table 1

Study 2

A researcher decided to perform a dihybrid cross of fruit flies possessing red eyes and long wings with fruit flies possessing sepia-brown eyes and short wings. The scientist bred homozygous dominant flies with homozygous recessive flies in the F1 Generation. The members of the F1 Generation were then mated in order to obtain the F2 Generation (Table 2).

Dihybrid

Table 2

Drosophila melanogaster is commonly known as which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Flea

Fruit fly

Gnat

House fly

Correct answer:

Fruit fly

Explanation:

The first paragraph of the passage states that the common name for Drosophila melanogaster is the fruit fly.

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