ACT Science : How to find research summary in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #31 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Passage I

An endocrinologist is a doctor who studies, diagnoses, and treats patients with hormone imbalances. There are many hormones involved in daily functioning. Two of the most important hormones for digestion are insulin and glucagon. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is released after a meal to help body cells take in sugar and covert it to energy. Glucagon is released when the body needs more energy, such as during exercise, and causes body cells to secrete sugar into the blood. A team of endocrinologists performed the following experiments:

Experiment 1

Five participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. All five participants were healthy and had no serious medical conditions. A team of endocrinologists monitored the blood sugar and insulin levels of the participants over time. Figure 1 is a graph of the average levels in the five participants.

Figure_1

Experiment 2

Two participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. One participant was healthy and the other had a hormone disease. Figure 2 is a graph of the blood sugar levels of the participants over time.

Figure_2

Which of the following patients should go see an endocrinologist?

Possible Answers:

A 55 year old woman experiencing fatigue, mood swings, and hot flashes

A 3 year old toddler who needs an immunization

A 25 year old woman who has a skin rash

A 50 year old man who has very high blood sugar readings

A 14 year old boy who injured his ankle

Correct answer:

A 50 year old man who has very high blood sugar readings

Explanation:

From the passage summary, you know that an endocrinologist is a doctor who sees patients with hormone imbalances. Glucagon and insulin are hormones which control blood sugar levels. Therefore, an individual with variable blood sugar levels would most likely see an endocrinologist.

Example Question #168 : Act Science

Passage I

An endocrinologist is a doctor who studies, diagnoses, and treats patients with hormone imbalances. There are many hormones involved in daily functioning. Two of the most important hormones for digestion are insulin and glucagon. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is released after a meal to help body cells take in sugar and covert it to energy. Glucagon is released when the body needs more energy, such as during exercise, and causes body cells to secrete sugar into the blood. A team of endocrinologists performed the following experiments:

Experiment 1

Five participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. All five participants were healthy and had no serious medical conditions. A team of endocrinologists monitored the blood sugar and insulin levels of the participants over time. Figure 1 is a graph of the average levels in the five participants.

Figure_1

Experiment 2

Two participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. One participant was healthy and the other had a hormone disease. Figure 2 is a graph of the blood sugar levels of the participants over time.

Figure_2

Who would an endocrinologist most likely work closely with?

Possible Answers:

Teacher

Janitor

Nutritionist

Paleontologist

Forensic Scientist

Correct answer:

Nutritionist

Explanation:

From the passage, you know that an endocrinologist is a doctor who sees patients with hormone imbalances. Glucagon and insulin are two hormones which impact blood sugar levels in patients. Since an individual's diet has an impact on their sugar levels, an endocrinologist would most closely work with a nutritionist to help patients. The other choices are unlikely to work closely with an endocrinologist.

Example Question #169 : Act Science

     Invasive species lack the natural competitors in a given area to properly regulate population growth and development. Myriophyllum spicatum is a Eurasian milfoil. It was first used in the United States as an aesthetic for aquatic fish tanks. Later, it was accidentally introduced into local ponds and lakes where it became a dominant invasive species and has began to choke out native and naturally occurring plant life. To make matters worse, phosphorus-rich fertilizers and cleaners have contaminated many freshwater biomes due to runoff and pollution. As a result, many standing freshwater pools contain heavy amounts of phosphorus. These species readily utilize the phosphorus and have become nearly unmanageable. Two ecologists express their views on how to control the invasive population.

Ecologist 1

     The best way to control the problem is to limit the nutrients in the biome. If the nutrients are controlled then the plants will be unable to grow and flourish. After several generations, the nutrients will be depleted and the plant species will become more manageable or disappear altogether.

Ecologist 2

     The best way to control the vegetation would be to physically cut and remove it from the biome. Seasonal cuttings would minimize the population and decrease reproductive success. Furthermore, any nutrients contained in the decomposing plant litter would be removed with the waste. Therefore, after several sweeps the plants would be removed altogether.

Ecologist 2's solution was utilized because it was more cost effective. After several generations the invasive species was under control. However, the next season it grew back. How would Ecologist 1 explain this phenomenon?

Possible Answers:

The cutting of the plants only removed their upper portions and left their root systems intact. The ample amounts of nutrients in the pond permitted their quick re-growth.

The non-native species is a sporophyte. The spores were released after the initial cutting and budded the next season.

The lake's pollution sustained the plants as they were being cut.

The cutting was ineffective because it needed to be repeated over a longer period of time.

Correct answer:

The cutting of the plants only removed their upper portions and left their root systems intact. The ample amounts of nutrients in the pond permitted their quick re-growth.

Explanation:

The cutting of the plants only removed their upper portions and left their root systems intact. The ample amounts of nutrients in the pond permitted their quick re-growth.

Ecologist 1 would support this statement because it is based on nutrient based growth of an invasive species. The other statements are plausible but not factually supported by Ecologist 1's ideas or methodologies.

Example Question #170 : Act Science

     Invasive species lack the natural competitors in a given area to properly regulate population growth and development. Myriophyllum spicatum is a Eurasian milfoil. It was first used in the United States as an aesthetic for aquatic fish tanks. Later, it was accidentally introduced into local ponds and lakes where it became a dominant invasive species and has began to choke out native and naturally occurring plant life. To make matters worse, phosphorus-rich fertilizers and cleaners have contaminated many freshwater biomes due to runoff and pollution. As a result, many standing freshwater pools contain heavy amounts of phosphorus. These species readily utilize the phosphorus and have become nearly unmanageable. Two ecologists express their views on how to control the invasive population.

Ecologist 1

     The best way to control the problem is to limit the nutrients in the biome. If the nutrients are controlled then the plants will be unable to grow and flourish. After several generations, the nutrients will be depleted and the plant species will become more manageable or disappear altogether.

Ecologist 2

     The best way to control the vegetation would be to physically cut and remove it from the biome. Seasonal cuttings would minimize the population and decrease reproductive success. Furthermore, any nutrients contained in the decomposing plant litter would be removed with the waste. Therefore, after several sweeps the plants would be removed altogether.

A japanese beetle is accidentally released into the biome. It feeds on the plant and controls its population. This provides evidence for which ecologist's theory?

Possible Answers:

Both

Ecologist 2

Neither

Ecologist 1

Correct answer:

Neither

Explanation:

This provides evidence for neither ecologist. This organism happened to prey on the invasive species and solve the issue at hand.  Ecologist 1 wanted to solve the problem by diverting pollution and Ecologist 2 attempted to solve the problem via physical removal of the plant. Neither suggested an organism.

Example Question #171 : Act Science

     Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) is a process utilized to obtain natural gas from the ground. Operators drill deep down into fragile shale rock and pump a specialized mixture of chemical fluids into the well. The fluids increase the pressure inside the well and cause the shale to fracture. As the shale rocks fracture, fissures of natural gas are released from pockets within the earth. After the fluid has been pushed into the system, the natural gas is released through the drilled well and collected at the rig site on ground level. This fairly new and innovative process has yielded promising results and has created great controversy. Two scientists express their views on the hydraulic fracturing industry.

Study 1

     A study was completed in order to measure the amount of methane released at an individual fracking rig. The scientist places an apparatus on the rig that measures the amount of methane released into the atmosphere in a 16-month period. The data is located in Figure 1.

Fracking_methane

Figure 1

 

Study 2

     A researcher studies gaseous emissions in relation to global climate change. Global warming potential is the amount of energy that a gas absorbs over a 100-year period when compared to carbon dioxide. Through numerous studies, the researcher determines that methane has a global warming potential of 21 meaning that it will cause 21 times more warming over a 100-year period than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.

Why are fluids added to the well during the hydraulic fracturing process?

Possible Answers:

They decrease the pressure and cause the shale to cave in on itself.

They increase the pressure and break shale rock.

They prevent the natural gas from igniting due to increased environmental pressure.

They increase the pressure allowing the gas pockets to release their contents into the earth.

Correct answer:

They increase the pressure and break shale rock.

Explanation:

They increase the pressure and break shale rock.

This is correct because the passage specifically states that the fluids are used to increase the pressure and fracture the shale, which releases natural gas into the well. The other choices are incorrect because they are in no way supported by the passage.

Example Question #172 : Act Science

     Hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) is a process utilized to obtain natural gas from the ground. Operators drill deep down into fragile shale rock and pump a specialized mixture of chemical fluids into the well. The fluids increase the pressure inside the well and cause the shale to fracture. As the shale rocks fracture, fissures of natural gas are released from pockets within the earth. After the fluid has been pushed into the system, the natural gas is released through the drilled well and collected at the rig site on ground level. This fairly new and innovative process has yielded promising results and has created great controversy. Two scientists express their views on the hydraulic fracturing industry.

Study 1

     A study was completed in order to measure the amount of methane released at an individual fracking rig. The scientist places an apparatus on the rig that measures the amount of methane released into the atmosphere in a 16-month period. The data is located in Figure 1.

Fracking_methane

Figure 1

 

Study 2

     A researcher studies gaseous emissions in relation to global climate change. Global warming potential is the amount of energy that a gas absorbs over a 100-year period when compared to carbon dioxide. Through numerous studies, the researcher determines that methane has a global warming potential of 21 meaning that it will cause 21 times more warming over a 100-year period than an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide.

The researchers of Study 2 investigate the results of Study 1. Which of the following statements would best represent their conclusions?

Possible Answers:

The fracturing apparatus produces negligible amounts of methane.

The fracturing apparatus produces liquid methane that does not effect greenhouse gas exchanges.

The fracturing apparatus produces a substantial amount of methane that may contribute to climate change.

None of the conclusions are logical choices.

Correct answer:

The fracturing apparatus produces a substantial amount of methane that may contribute to climate change.

Explanation:

The fracturing apparatus produces a substantial amount of methane that may contribute to climate change.

This is supported by both studies in the passage. The fracturing apparatus produces 97 metric tons of methane in a 16-month period. This is a fairly large amount of methane to be produced by a single fracturing apparatus. The scientists could logically conclude that large amounts of methane from fracturing operations could lead to climate change.

Example Question #173 : Act Science

Mimicry is an important long-term evolutionary survival adaptation. In nature, there are four main types of mimicry used by species to enhance their survival. Batesian mimicry occurs when a palatable species closely resembles an unpalatable one. Müllerian mimicry exists when several unpalatable species resemble one another. Mertensian mimicry occurs when a deadly predator mimics a less dangerous one. Last, crypsis is the result of camouflage that enables a species to closely resemble its environment.

Certain scientific studies have revealed that the toxic coral snake mimics the milk snake. This evidence suggests that the coral snake exhibits which type of mimicry?

Possible Answers:

Batesian

None of the choices are correct.

Müllerian 

Mertensian

Correct answer:

Mertensian

Explanation:

Mertensian

This is the correct answer because the deadly coral snake mimics the non-lethal milk snake. This is an example of Mertensian mimicry as indicated in the passage.

Example Question #174 : Act Science

Mimicry is an important long-term evolutionary survival adaptation. In nature, there are four main types of mimicry used by species to enhance their survival. Batesian mimicry occurs when a palatable species closely resembles an unpalatable one. Müllerian mimicry exists when several unpalatable species resemble one another. Mertensian mimicry occurs when a deadly predator mimics a less dangerous one. Last, crypsis is the result of camouflage that enables a species to closely resemble its environment.

Two relatively harmless species of toads share the same physical structure and coloration pattern. These toads best exhibit which type of mimicry?

Possible Answers:

Mertensian

Batesian

None of the choices are correct.

Müllerian 

Correct answer:

None of the choices are correct.

Explanation:

None of the choices are correct.

In this example, two harmless species resemble each other. None of the described types of mimicry exhibit these characteristics; therefore, none of the mimicry choices are correct.

Example Question #175 : Act Science

Mimicry is an important long-term evolutionary survival adaptation. In nature, there are four main types of mimicry used by species to enhance their survival. Batesian mimicry occurs when a palatable species closely resembles an unpalatable one. Müllerian mimicry exists when several unpalatable species resemble one another. Mertensian mimicry occurs when a deadly predator mimics a less dangerous one. Last, crypsis is the result of camouflage that enables a species to closely resemble its environment.

A certain fly shares striking similarities in physical structure and coloration to a deadly hornet species. This fly exhibits what type of mimicry?

Possible Answers:
None of the choices are correct.

Müllerian 

Mertensian

Batesian

Correct answer:

Batesian

Explanation:

Batesian

This is an example of Batesian mimicry because the harmless species exhibits characteristics of a dangerous and unpalatable species. This evidence is supported by the passage.

Example Question #176 : Act Science

Mimicry is an important long-term evolutionary survival adaptation. In nature, there are four main types of mimicry used by species to enhance their survival. Batesian mimicry occurs when a palatable species closely resembles an unpalatable one. Müllerian mimicry exists when several unpalatable species resemble one another. Mertensian mimicry occurs when a deadly predator mimics a less dangerous one. Last, crypsis is the result of camouflage that enables a species to closely resemble its environment.

Members of the phasmatodea family of insects resemble small branches of local foliage in their environments. This is an example of which type of mimicry?

Possible Answers:

Batesian

Müllerian 

Crypsis

Mertensian

Correct answer:

Crypsis

Explanation:

Crypsis

This is an example of crypsis because the insect closely resembles parts of its environment and uses this as camouflage. This evidence is supported by the passage.

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