ACT Science : How to find research summary in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #177 : Act Science

Mimicry is an important long-term evolutionary survival adaptation. In nature, there are four main types of mimicry used by species to enhance their survival. Batesian mimicry occurs when a palatable species closely resembles an unpalatable one. Müllerian mimicry exists when several unpalatable species resemble one another. Mertensian mimicry occurs when a deadly predator mimics a less dangerous one. Last, crypsis is the result of camouflage that enables a species to closely resemble its environment.

Current studies have indicated that the visually similar viceroy and monarch butterflies are equally poisonous to predators. This is an example of which type of mimicry?

Possible Answers:

Crypsis

 Müllerian

Mertensian

Batesian

Correct answer:

 Müllerian

Explanation:

 Müllerian

This is the correct answer because the two prey species are visually similar and both unpalatable to predators. This evidence is supported by the passage.

Example Question #178 : Act Science

     Species competition is driven by a variety of factors. Resources such as water, food, sunlight, and suitable habitat are among the top contributors that influence interspecific and intraspecific competition. Interspecific is competition between different species and intraspecific competition is between members of the same species.

     One interesting example of interspecific completion is that of two barnacle species that inhabit intertidal zones. Balanus balanoides inhabits the lower intertidal zone and Chthamalus stellatus inhabits the lower intertidal zone. A researcher attempts to study this phenomenon.

     The researcher removes the Balanus species from the lower intertidal zone and observes that the Chthamalus species expands its range to inhabit the lower intertidal zone and the upper intertidal zone. The researcher then removes the Chthamalus species from the upper tidal zone of a different area and observes that the Balanus species does not extend its range. The researcher concludes that competition has allowed each species to exist simultaneously by forming specialized niches that promotes survivorship for each species.

A researcher suggests that the barnacles behave in this manner because of the presence of a keystone species. A keystone species is a species that promotes species diversity by way of actions or behaviors. Which of the following could be a keystone species in the barnacles' environment?

Possible Answers:

An octopus feeds on the tidal line between the upper and lower intertidal zones that separates the two species by devouring those that attempt to cross to either side.

A sea urchin feeds at the upper intertidal zone and prefers to eat the heartier Balanus species allowing the smaller Chthamalus to proliferate in all zones.

A shark devours all potential predators in the area allowing the barnacles to move independently across the intertidal zones.

None of the choices are correct.

Correct answer:

An octopus feeds on the tidal line between the upper and lower intertidal zones that separates the two species by devouring those that attempt to cross to either side.

Explanation:

An octopus feeds on the tidal line between the upper and lower intertidal zones that separates the two species by devouring those that attempt to cross to either side.

This is the correct answer becuse this species actively patrols the line that separates the two species and prevents interaction between the two. The other examples are species that may prey on the barnacles or predators of the barnacles but allow them to interact and compete for space.

Example Question #179 : Act Science

     Species competition is driven by a variety of factors. Resources such as water, food, sunlight, and suitable habitat are among the top contributors that influence interspecific and intraspecific competition. Interspecific is competition between different species and intraspecific competition is between members of the same species.

     One interesting example of interspecific completion is that of two barnacle species that inhabit intertidal zones. Balanus balanoides inhabits the lower intertidal zone and Chthamalus stellatus inhabits the lower intertidal zone. A researcher attempts to study this phenomenon.

     The researcher removes the Balanus species from the lower intertidal zone and observes that the Chthamalus species expands its range to inhabit the lower intertidal zone and the upper intertidal zone. The researcher then removes the Chthamalus species from the upper tidal zone of a different area and observes that the Balanus species does not extend its range. The researcher concludes that competition has allowed each species to exist simultaneously by forming specialized niches that promotes survivorship for each species.

Ecologists have found that the lower intertidal zones possess far greater levels of carbon dioxide than the upper regions. What does this evidence suggest?

Possible Answers:

None of the choices are proper suggestions.

It suggests that carbon dioxide is toxic to the Chthamalus species and limits its range to the upper zones.

It suggests that the ocean is a carbon sink that is potentially hazardous to species diversity.

It suggests that the Balanus species requires more carbon dioxide for survival and limits its range to the lower zones.

Correct answer:

It suggests that the Balanus species requires more carbon dioxide for survival and limits its range to the lower zones.

Explanation:

It suggests that the Balanus species requires more carbon dioxide for survival and limits its range to the lower zones.

This is the correct answer because it is supported by the behavior of the Balanus observed in the passage. One possibility for its limited range could be a dependance on carbon dioxide levels that are greater in the lower intertidal zone. None of the other choices are supported by evidence in the passage. The Chthamalus species can live in either zone meaning that the differences in carbon dioxide levels have not affected its range.

Example Question #180 : Act Science

Symbiosis is defined as a state in which two species intimately live together. This indicates that they are in close contact with one another and can affect each other. Symbiosis has been documented in three dominant forms: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Commensalism exists when one organism benefits and one, presumably the host, is affected neither negatively or positively. Mutualism is described as two organisms that both benefit from their interactions. Last, parasitism is described as an interaction that benefits an organism at the expense of the host organism.

Barnacles adhere to the bodies of whales in the ocean. The barnacle is granted transportation, possible food sources, and shelter. The relationship does not seem to enhance or negatively impact the whale's survival. This is an example of which type of symbiosis?

Possible Answers:

Parasitism

Commensalism

Mutualism

None of the choices are correct.

Correct answer:

Commensalism

Explanation:

This is an example of commensalism because one species benefits and the host is unaffected by the interaction. This is supported by the passage.

Example Question #41 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Symbiosis is defined as a state in which two species intimately live together. This indicates that they are in close contact with one another and can affect each other. Symbiosis has been documented in three dominant forms: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Commensalism exists when one organism benefits and one, presumably the host, is affected neither negatively or positively. Mutualism is described as two organisms that both benefit from their interactions. Last, parasitism is described as an interaction that benefits an organism at the expense of the host organism.

Bacteria live in the digestive tract of humans and other mammals. The bacteria enable the the host to better digest food and in return are granted a suitable habitat and a source of food. This is an example of which type of symbiosis?

Possible Answers:

Mutualism

None of the choices are correct.

Commensalism

Parasitism

Correct answer:

Mutualism

Explanation:

This is an example of mutualism. Both organisms benefit from the relationship. The bacteria help with digestion while the host provides food and shelter. This is supported by the passage.

Example Question #42 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Symbiosis is defined as a state in which two species intimately live together. This indicates that they are in close contact with one another and can affect each other. Symbiosis has been documented in three dominant forms: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Commensalism exists when one organism benefits and one, presumably the host, is affected neither negatively or positively. Mutualism is described as two organisms that both benefit from their interactions. Last, parasitism is described as an interaction that benefits an organism at the expense of the host organism.

A dog ingests a tapeworm. The worm feeds off of the host dog while at the same time deprives the host of much needed nutrients. This is an example of which type of symbiosis?

Possible Answers:

Parasitism

Mutualism

Commensalism

None of the choices are correct.

Correct answer:

Parasitism

Explanation:

This relationship is an example of parasitism. The tape worm deprives the host of nutrients, which is detrimental to its existence, while at the same time benefitting from the relationship. One organism benefits and one organism is negatively impacted. This is supported by the passage.

Example Question #43 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Symbiosis is defined as a state in which two species intimately live together. This indicates that they are in close contact with one another and can affect each other. Symbiosis has been documented in three dominant forms: commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism. Commensalism exists when one organism benefits and one, presumably the host, is affected neither negatively or positively. Mutualism is described as two organisms that both benefit from their interactions. Last, parasitism is described as an interaction that benefits an organism at the expense of the host organism.

Honey bees pollinate flowers while at the same time harvesting nectar to be made into honey. This is an example of which type of symbiosis?

Possible Answers:

Parasitism

Mutualism

None of the choices are correct.

Commensalism

Correct answer:

Mutualism

Explanation:

The correct answer is mutualism. The bees gain nectar for honey. The flowers are pollinated and aided in reproduction. Both species benefit from the relationship. This is supported by the passage.

Example Question #44 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

     Osmoregulation is a necessary function to maintain homeostasis in organisms. Fish gills form the boundary between fish body fluid and environmental conditions. The regulation of water transport across barrier epithelial membranes in gills is assisted by membrane composition and affected by solute concentration on either side of the membrane. Fish body fluids are isotonic and have compositions of about 300 milliosmoles of solutes per liter. Freshwater environments are hypotonic and typically have compositions of about 1 milliosmole of solutes per liter. Saltwater environments are hypertonic and typically have a composition of about 1,000 milliosmoles of solutes per liter. Based on observed osmoregulation across varying concentration gradients, it is expected that gills exposed to isotonic solutions maintain steady water weight, while those exposed to hypotonic solutions increase in water weight, and those exposed to hypertonic solutions decreased in water weight.

Study 1

     Gills dissected from a fish were exposed to different ambient environments of salinity including an isotonic control solution (301.5 milliosmoles), a hypotonic solution (1.5 milliosmoles), and a hypertonic solution (601.5 milliosmoles). Percent water weight change between treatments was observed and calculated.

A homeowner purchases a fish species that can survive in either salt or freshwater environments. The homeowner has several tropical fish living in a saltwater tank. The purchased fish was placed in a bag containing an isotonic solution. The shop clerk states that the fish should be placed in a particular solution before being placed in the saltwater environment. Which solution should the fish be placed in before it is put in the tropical tank?

Possible Answers:

300 milliosmole environment

1 milliosmole environment

The fish should not be placed in any of these solutions.

800 milliosmole environment

Correct answer:

800 milliosmole environment

Explanation:

The fish should be placed in the hypertonic 800 milliosmole solution. The fish will be better acclimated to its new saltwater (1000 milliosmole) home. The other solutions represent hypotonic and isotonic environments that would not prepare the fish for its transition into the new tank.

Example Question #45 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

     Osmoregulation is a necessary function to maintain homeostasis in organisms. Fish gills form the boundary between fish body fluid and environmental conditions. The regulation of water transport across barrier epithelial membranes in gills is assisted by membrane composition and affected by solute concentration on either side of the membrane. Fish body fluids are isotonic and have compositions of about 300 milliosmoles of solutes per liter. Freshwater environments are hypotonic and typically have compositions of about 1 milliosmole of solutes per liter. Saltwater environments are hypertonic and typically have a composition of about 1,000 milliosmoles of solutes per liter. Based on observed osmoregulation across varying concentration gradients, it is expected that gills exposed to isotonic solutions maintain steady water weight, while those exposed to hypotonic solutions increase in water weight, and those exposed to hypertonic solutions decreased in water weight.

Study 1

     Gills dissected from a fish were exposed to different ambient environments of salinity including an isotonic control solution (301.5 milliosmoles), a hypotonic solution (1.5 milliosmoles), and a hypertonic solution (601.5 milliosmoles). Percent water weight change between treatments was observed and calculated.

A tropical-fish store places fish in saltwater environments. Over several months a large number of fish die in the tanks. The shop owner takes one of the fish to a research lab where its cells are analyzed. The researchers tell the owner that the fish cells burst due to the solute concentration of its environment. Compared to the fish's gills the environment was of which of the following salinities?

Possible Answers:

None of the choices are correct.

 

Isotonic

Hypertonic

Hypotonic

Correct answer:

Hypotonic

Explanation:

The fish's gills were placed in a hypotonic solution. The fish gills had a higher salinity and absorbed water to reach an equilibrium with their environment. In doing so their cells became rigid and burst. This killed the fish. This information is supported by the passage.

Example Question #46 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that is used by the human body to interconvert carbon dioxide (a gaseous compound) and bicarbonate (a compound composed of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen), using water as a reactant. The human body needs to convert carbon dioxide to bicarbonate in the tissues to transport it in the blood to the lungs, as carbon dioxide is relatively insoluble. In the lungs, bicarbonate is converted back to carbon dioxide to be exhaled. In humans, there are two different carbonic anhydrase isomers, one that works in the lungs (isomer A) and one that works in the tissues (isomer B). Mutations in the chromosomes can prevent carbonic anhydrase from converting carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the following four experiments, the chromosomes of none, one, or both of the isomers were mutated per experiment.

 

Experiment 1

Radiation was used to mutate one of the chromosomes of one or more isomers of carbonic anhydrase. A probe was placed into the tissues and lungs of a model animal. Bicarbonate was measured in the tissues but carbon dioxide was not measured in the lungs.

 

Experiment 2

Radiation was used to mutate one of the chromosomes of one or more isomers of carbonic anhydrase. A probe was placed into the tissues and lungs of a model animal. Carbon dioxide levels were found to be abnormally high in the tissues and no bicarbonate was measured in the lungs.

 

Experiment 3

Radiation was used to mutate one of the chromosomes of one or more isomers of carbonic anhydrase. A probe was placed into the tissues and lungs of a model animal. Carbon dioxide levels were found to be slightly low in the tissues and bicarbonate levels were abnormally high in the lungs.

 

Experiment 4

Radiation was not used, A probe was placed into the tissues and lungs of a model animal and found normal carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels.

Which of the following best describes the role of carbonic anhydrase in the tissues?

Possible Answers:

It is essential for providing energy to lung cells.

It is essential for regulating the amount of water in the lungs.

It is essential for clearing carbon dioxide in the tissues and expelling it from the body.

It is essentail for transporting oxygen to the tissues.

Correct answer:

It is essential for clearing carbon dioxide in the tissues and expelling it from the body.

Explanation:

The passage states that carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that is used to interconvert carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. The passage also states that, on its own, carbon dioxide is largely insoluble in the blood, meaning that in order for it to be removed from the tissues, it must first be converted into bicarbonate to be transported. Thus, the purpose of carbonic anhydrase is to clear carbon dioxide from the tissues by converting it into bicarbonate and transporting it to the lungs.

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