ACT Science : How to find research summary in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #157 : Act Science

     Species distribution is a key component to analyze ecological systems. Species may inhabit a system in a variety of ways. Several of these types of distribution include the following: clustered, uniformed, and randomized. Clustered groupings are the most common. These species tend to inhabit areas in close packs of three or more organisms. These may consist of mating partners, packs, or families of organisms. Uniformed distribution occurs when organisms of a species inhabit a particular area that is not disrupted by organisms of the same species. This could be accomplished by pheromones, toxins, or aggressive behavior that marks an organism’s territory. Last, the most uncommon species distribution is randomized distribution. This distribution rarely occurs in nature and is classified as a scattering of organisms with no discernible pattern or arrangement.

A boy scout troop walks through a briar patch. Each boy picks up several briars along the way. As they travel home to various locations, each scout removes the briars and tosses them in his respective yard. If the briars germinate then what type of dispersion does this phenomenon best represent?

Possible Answers:

Uniformed

None of the distribution choices are correct.

Randomized

Clustered

Correct answer:

Randomized

Explanation:

The correct answer is randomized dispersion. The troop picked up briars and then moved them to random locations to germinate and spread. There is no evidence that they would grow in a uniformed or clustered manner. 

Example Question #21 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

     Species distribution is a key component to analyze ecological systems. Species may inhabit a system in a variety of ways. Several of these types of distribution include the following: clustered, uniformed, and randomized. Clustered groupings are the most common. These species tend to inhabit areas in close packs of three or more organisms. These may consist of mating partners, packs, or families of organisms. Uniformed distribution occurs when organisms of a species inhabit a particular area that is not disrupted by organisms of the same species. This could be accomplished by pheromones, toxins, or aggressive behavior that marks an organism’s territory. Last, the most uncommon species distribution is randomized distribution. This distribution rarely occurs in nature and is classified as a scattering of organisms with no discernible pattern or arrangement.

A species of wolf inhabits environments as packs. They utilize pheromones to deter individuals from their same pack as well as competing wolf packs. The wolves migrate randomly based on prey movements and weather. What type of distribution do the wolves best exhibit?

Possible Answers:

Uniformed

Randomized

Clustered

None of the distribution choices are correct.

Correct answer:

None of the distribution choices are correct.

Explanation:

None of the types of distribution are correct. The wolves exhibit traits of each distribution model but do not seem to favor one enough to exhibit it exclusively.

Example Question #159 : Act Science

     Criminal and deviant acts have plagued society for many years. Scientists have tried to isolate variables and factors of individuals susceptible to these behaviors. The goal of this research is to create models of individuals most likely to commit deviant acts. Prediction of criminal behavior could reduce crime rates on a grand scale. Three scientists express their views on how to model criminal behavior and predict or prevent criminal acts.

Scientist 1

     Criminal behavior is the result of prehistoric tendencies that favor aggressive and deviant acts for survival. A study of the corpses of criminals revealed that many exhibited prominent brows, strong upper bodies, large chests and other attributes that lend to a physical model of prediction that classifies criminals as "evolutionary throwbacks."

Scientist 2

     Criminal behavior is the result of psychological ills that may be remedied with treatment and hospitalization. Studies have revealed that many criminal men possess an XYY makeup. This means that they contain one extra Y chromosome that results in aggressive, deviant, and criminal behaviors. Further studies have revealed that these genetic abnormalities can alter hormonal secretion and lead to criminally deviant actions and behaviors. Increased serotonin levels can lead to aggressive tendencies while altered dopamine secretion can chemically reward the commitment of deviant acts by stimulating pleasure receptors.

Scientist 3

     Criminal behavior is the result of neurological abnormalities that can be studied and mapped. Studies of criminal and non-criminal persons have revealed inconsistencies in brain scans and neurological makeup. These alterations in brain chemistry and function have resulted in the development of sociopathic and narcissistic tendencies. These tendencies often increase probabilities for deviant and violent outbursts. The best way to predict criminal behavior is to utilize neurological scanning and mapping procedures.

According to Scientist 2, which of the following chemicals leads to aggresssive tendencies?

Possible Answers:

Serotonin

Dopamine

Hypothalamus

Epinephrine

Correct answer:

Serotonin

Explanation:

Serotonin is the correct answer because it is supported by the passage and stated to increase aggressive tendencies in individuals. The other answers are incorrect because they are not supported in this manner.

Example Question #160 : Act Science

     A common phenomenon in aquatic plant growth and development is the effects of a limiting nutrient. A limiting nutrient is one that has the ability to stunt or halt plant growth and development if its stores are depleted in the soil or plant itself.  Limiting nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients are usually tightly bound to soil particles and not available for direct use. In response, plants produce and release enzymes. Enzymes release bound particles in order for the plant to actively transport nutrients from the soil. Two scientists express their views on enzyme nutrient interactions within an aquatic biome.

Scientist 1

     The reaction is inducible. As the plant senses cues from phosphorus in the soil, it develops and releases enzymes to obtain the nutrients it needs. In this way, the plant obtains nutrients, preserves biological energy, and maintains fitness.

Scientist 2

     The reaction is coincidental. Plants are biologically primed to create stores of phosphatase enzymes in order to obtain environmental nutrients. Therefore, fitness and energy costs are inconsequential.

Assume that Scientist 2's viewpoint on enzymes and fitness is correct. Based on this assumption and information provided, plants would be least lkely to exhibit which of the following features.

Possible Answers:

Increased phosphatase levels in soils containing phosphorus.

Plants are adapted to, and have evolved to, obtain essential nutrients from the environment.

Plants will have stunted growths in nutrient-deprived environments.

Decreased fitness during phosphatase production.

Correct answer:

Decreased fitness during phosphatase production.

Explanation:

Decreased fitness during phosphatase production.

This is the only correct answer becuase it directly speaks against Scientist 2's viewpoints that state that plant's fitness and energy costs are inconsequential to phosphatase production. All other answers support both Scientist 2's viewpoints and information in the passage.

Example Question #161 : Act Science

     A common phenomenon in aquatic plant growth and development is the effects of a limiting nutrient. A limiting nutrient is one that has the ability to stunt or halt plant growth and development if its stores are depleted in the soil or plant itself.  Limiting nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients are usually tightly bound to soil particles and not available for direct use. In response, plants produce and release enzymes. Enzymes release bound particles in order for the plant to actively transport nutrients from the soil. Two scientists express their views on enzyme nutrient interactions within an aquatic biome.

Scientist 1

     The reaction is inducible. As the plant senses cues from phosphorus in the soil, it develops and releases enzymes to obtain the nutrients it needs. In this way, the plant obtains nutrients, preserves biological energy, and maintains fitness.

Scientist 2

     The reaction is coincidental. Plants are biologically primed to create stores of phosphatase enzymes in order to obtain environmental nutrients. Therefore, fitness and energy costs are inconsequential.

Based on the information in Scientist 1's view which results would be expected in a scientific investigation of phosphatase production and plant fitness?

Possible Answers:

As plants produce enzymes, they increase levels of internal toxins as a byproduct.

As plants produce enzymes, they must utilize lactic fermentation in order to produce energy.

As plants produce enymes, they experience decreased levels of reproductive success.

As plants produce enzymes, they experience a drop in biological energy and fitness.

Correct answer:

As plants produce enzymes, they experience a drop in biological energy and fitness.

Explanation:

As plants produce enzymes, they experience a drop in biological energy and fitness.

This is correct because Scientist 1 hypothesized that plants would only produce enzymes in the presence of phosporus in order to maintain proper fitness and energy levels. The other answers may or may not play a role in enzyme production but are not expectations in accordance to Scientist 1's view.

Example Question #162 : Act Science

     A common phenomenon in aquatic plant growth and development is the effects of a limiting nutrient. A limiting nutrient is one that has the ability to stunt or halt plant growth and development if its stores are depleted in the soil or plant itself.  Limiting nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients are usually tightly bound to soil particles and not available for direct use. In response, plants produce and release enzymes. Enzymes release bound particles in order for the plant to actively transport nutrients from the soil. Two scientists express their views on enzyme nutrient interactions within an aquatic biome.

Scientist 1

     The reaction is inducible. As the plant senses cues from phosphorus in the soil, it develops and releases enzymes to obtain the nutrients it needs. In this way, the plant obtains nutrients, preserves biological energy, and maintains fitness.

Scientist 2

     The reaction is coincidental. Plants are biologically primed to create stores of phosphatase enzymes in order to obtain environmental nutrients. Therefore, fitness and energy costs are inconsequential.

The passage explains how plants obtain nutrients in their environments. In an environment rich in soil-bound nitrogen, which of the following would most likely be found in elevated levels within the plants?

Possible Answers:

Nitrogen-fixing enzymes

Nitric acid

Endoprotease

Nitrous oxide

Correct answer:

Nitrogen-fixing enzymes

Explanation:

Nitrogen fixing enzymes

This is the correct answer because the plants would need to release the nitrogen from the soil and according to the passage a nitrogen-specific enzyme would be needed.

The plant may or may not contain nitrous oxide or nitric acid, but not as a direct consequence of soil-bound nitrogen. Last, endoprotease is an unrelated enzyme utilized in protein formation.

Example Question #163 : Act Science

     A common phenomenon in aquatic plant growth and development is the effects of a limiting nutrient. A limiting nutrient is one that has the ability to stunt or halt plant growth and development if its stores are depleted in the soil or plant itself.  Limiting nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients are usually tightly bound to soil particles and not available for direct use. In response, plants produce and release enzymes. Enzymes release bound particles in order for the plant to actively transport nutrients from the soil. Two scientists express their views on enzyme nutrient interactions within an aquatic biome.

Scientist 1

     The reaction is inducible. As the plant senses cues from phosphorus in the soil, it develops and releases enzymes to obtain the nutrients it needs. In this way, the plant obtains nutrients, preserves biological energy, and maintains fitness.

Scientist 2

     The reaction is coincidental. Plants are biologically primed to create stores of phosphatase enzymes in order to obtain environmental nutrients. Therefore, fitness and energy costs are inconsequential.

Based on the information within the passages, if an aquatic biome was polluted with free-floating phosphorus, then Scientist 1 would conclude which of the following?

Possible Answers:


Plants would die because the phosphorus pollutants would toxify the environment.

Plants would continue to obtain nutrients from the soil.

Plants would obtain phosphorus via facilitated transport of the free-floating phosphorus.

Plants would release phosphatase in order to acquire the newly-introduced phosphorus.

Correct answer:

Plants would obtain phosphorus via facilitated transport of the free-floating phosphorus.

Explanation:

Plants would obtain phosphorus via facilitated transport of the free-floating phosphorus.

This is the correct answer because the newly-introduced phosphorus would be easier to obtain by utilizing facilitated transport and diffusion.

Plants would die because the phosphorus pollutants would toxify the environment.

There is no evidence in the passage that this could or would occur.

Plants would continue to obtain nutrients from the soil.

Plants would not "work" to obtain phosphorus that is in exess in the environment.

Plants would release phosphatase in order to acquire the newly-introduced phosphorus.

Phosphatase would not be needed to take in already free-floating phosphorus.

Example Question #164 : Act Science

     A common phenomenon in aquatic plant growth and development is the effects of a limiting nutrient. A limiting nutrient is one that has the ability to stunt or halt plant growth and development if its stores are depleted in the soil or plant itself.  Limiting nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients are usually tightly bound to soil particles and not available for direct use. In response, plants produce and release enzymes. Enzymes release bound particles in order for the plant to actively transport nutrients from the soil. Two scientists express their views on enzyme nutrient interactions within an aquatic biome.

Scientist 1

     The reaction is inducible. As the plant senses cues from phosphorus in the soil, it develops and releases enzymes to obtain the nutrients it needs. In this way, the plant obtains nutrients, preserves biological energy, and maintains fitness.

Scientist 2

     The reaction is coincidental. Plants are biologically primed to create stores of phosphatase enzymes in order to obtain environmental nutrients. Therefore, fitness and energy costs are inconsequential.

A pollutant is introduced into the environment. It acts as a competitive inhibitor to phosphatase. Therefore, it renders the phosphatase enzyme ineffective to obtain nutrients from the soil. The plant adapts to this change and produces another enzyme that is unaffected by the new pollutant. The next generation of plants possess decreased fitness and decreased reproductive success due to low numbers of offspring. Which scientist would expect these results.

Possible Answers:

Scientist 2

Neither

Both

Scientist 1

Correct answer:

Scientist 1

Explanation:

Scientist 1 would expect these results because they are in agreement with his viewpoints. The plants would experience levels of decreased fitness and reproductive success because of the increased energy consumed to produce an alternative enzyme for phosphorus acquisition. Scientist 2 would not expect or support these results.

Example Question #165 : Act Science

Passage I

An endocrinologist is a doctor who studies, diagnoses, and treats patients with hormone imbalances. There are many hormones involved in daily functioning. Two of the most important hormones for digestion are insulin and glucagon. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is released after a meal to help body cells take in sugar and covert it to energy. Glucagon is released when the body needs more energy, such as during exercise, and causes body cells to secrete sugar into the blood. A team of endocrinologists performed the following experiments:

Experiment 1

Five participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. All five participants were healthy and had no serious medical conditions. A team of endocrinologists monitored the blood sugar and insulin levels of the participants over time. Figure 1 is a graph of the average levels in the five participants.

Figure_1

Experiment 2

Two participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. One participant was healthy and the other had a hormone disease. Figure 2 is a graph of the blood sugar levels of the participants over time.

Figure_2

What is the most reasonable explanation for a delay between an increased level of blood glucose and an increased level of insulin?

Possible Answers:

Glucose levels have no impact on insulin levels

Cells do not release insulin until they are saturated with sugar

The body triggers insulin only after blood sugar reaches a specific level

The body takes time to digest food into sugar and signal the brain to increase insulin

Correct answer:

The body takes time to digest food into sugar and signal the brain to increase insulin

Explanation:

This question can be answered by the process of elimination.

According to Figure 1, an increase in blood sugar signals an increase in insulin levels. Also, the passage states that insulin is a hormone which helps body cells take up sugar, thereby decreasing blood sugar levels. Therefore, glucose levels have an impact on insulin levels, and this answer can be eliminated.

Neither the passage nor the experiments state that cells release insulin, only blood sugar. Therefore this answer can be eliminated.

According to Figure 1, blood sugar and insulin concentrations increase gradually over time. The data indicates that there is no specific level of blood sugar that triggers insulin release; it is a continuous process. Therefore this answer can be eliminated.

This leaves only one correct answer.

Example Question #21 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Passage I

An endocrinologist is a doctor who studies, diagnoses, and treats patients with hormone imbalances. There are many hormones involved in daily functioning. Two of the most important hormones for digestion are insulin and glucagon. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas. Insulin is released after a meal to help body cells take in sugar and covert it to energy. Glucagon is released when the body needs more energy, such as during exercise, and causes body cells to secrete sugar into the blood. A team of endocrinologists performed the following experiments:

Experiment 1

Five participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. All five participants were healthy and had no serious medical conditions. A team of endocrinologists monitored the blood sugar and insulin levels of the participants over time. Figure 1 is a graph of the average levels in the five participants.

Figure_1

Experiment 2

Two participants were given 15 grams of pure glucose (sugar). The participants had not eaten for four hours prior to the experiment. One participant was healthy and the other had a hormone disease. Figure 2 is a graph of the blood sugar levels of the participants over time.

Figure_2

If you were an endocrinologist, what would you recommend to Participant B?

Possible Answers:

Take glucagon injections to decrease blood sugar levels

Take insulin injections to increase blood sugar levels

Take insulin injections to decrease blood sugar levels

Nothing, Participant B is healthy

Take glucagon injections to increase blood sugar levels

Correct answer:

Take insulin injections to decrease blood sugar levels

Explanation:

The descriptions for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 specify the requirements for participation. Experiment 1 included all healthy individuals while Experiment 2 included one healthy and one unhealthy participant. Comparing the graphs of glucose concentration from Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, the graph of Participant A's concentration most closely resembles the graph from Experiment 1. Therefore, it is most likely that Participant B has an endocrine disease.

 The graph of Paticipant B's glucose concentration is above average. Therefore, an endocrinologist would recommend Participant B take medication to lower sugar levels. The hormone which lowers blood sugar level is insulin.

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