# SSAT Upper Level Verbal : Material Composition

## Example Questions

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### Example Question #563 : Analogies

Copper is to brass as iron is to __________.

cast

metal

bronze

steel

steel

Explanation:

Brass is an alloy of copper, and steel is an alloy of iron.

### Example Question #1 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Dune is to sand as drift is to __________.

water

snow

marble

air

pathway

snow

Explanation:

"Dune" is a noun defined as a mound of sediment, such as sand. Because dunes are composed of sand, we need to pick out an answer choice that refers to the substance of which a drift can consist. "Drift" is defined as a pile of snow, leaves, or other material formed by the wind, so "snow" is the correct answer because just as sand forms dunes when it is blown into piles by the wind, snow forms drifts when it is blown into piles by the wind.

### Example Question #2 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Bottle is to glass as __________.

wall is to gelatin

box is to cardboard

table is to air

cloth is to electricity

window is to brick

box is to cardboard

Explanation:

A bottle might logically be made of glass, so we need to pick out an answer choice in which the first word is a noun conveying an object, and the second word a noun describing a material of which that object might logically be made. While “box is to cardboard,” “table is to air,” and “wall is to gelatin” each follow the pattern of a word conveying an object followed by a word conveying a material, one would not expect a table to be made of air or a wall to be made of gelatin, so neither “table is to air” nor “wall is to gelatin” can be the correct answer. One might logically expect a box to be made of cardboard, however, just as one might logically expect a bottle to be made of glass, so “box is to cardboard” is the correct answer.

### Example Question #3 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Cardboard is to box as __________.

wood is to igloo

socks are to nest

metal is to chain

sheep is to wool

clay is to pot

clay is to pot

Explanation:

Since boxes can be made of cardboard, we need to pick out an answer choice in which the first word describes a substance of which the second word can be made. Both "clay is to pot" and "metal is to chain" could be correct answers. However, "clay is to pot" is the better answer because a pot, like a box, is a type of container, unlike a chain. So, the correct answer is "clay is to pot."

### Example Question #4 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Square is to circle as rectangle is to __________.

globe

semicircle

oval

diamond

sphere

oval

Explanation:

In a "square" and a "circle" the distance from the center to any point on the outside is always the same as the distance from the center to any other point on the outside. A "circle" might be seen as "a round square." So, which of these could be seen as a "round rectangle?" The correct answer is an "oval." An "oval" is a round, elongated shape. Additionally, a "sphere" is a three-dimensional circle, an example of a "sphere" is a "globe."

### Example Question #5 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Coven is to ______________ as guild is to tradesmen.

hikers

scientists

witches

teachers

animals

witches

Explanation:

A group of "tradesmen" is called a "guild." So, to solve this analogy you need to determine which of these, when taken as a group, is called a "coven." The correct answer is that a "coven" is a group of "witches."

### Example Question #6 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Anthology is to _______________ as encyclopedia is to information.

fruits

students

stories

puzzles

chickens

stories

Explanation:

An "encyclopedia" is a book that contains a collection of "information." So, to solve this analogy you need to determine what an "anthology" is a collection of. The correct answer is that an "anthology" is a collection of "stories."

### Example Question #7 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Dune is to ______________ as downs is to grass.

space

sand

arctic

ice

desert

sand

Explanation:

"Downs" are small, rolling hills made of "grass." So, to solve this analogy you need to determine what it is that "dunes" are made of. The correct answer is that a "dune" is made of "sand." "Dunes" are typically found in the "desert."

### Example Question #8 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Portfolio is to artwork as troupe is to ______________.

actors

pilots

ideas

friends

relatives

actors

Explanation:

A "portfolio" is a collection of "artwork" produced by an individual. So, if a "portfolio" is a collection of "artwork," what is a "troupe" a collection of? The correct answer is that a "troupe" is a group of entertainers, like "artists" or musicians, who travel and perform together

### Example Question #9 : Material Composition

Complete this analogy.

Anvil is to __________ as lumber is to wood.

gold

hammer

diamond

iron

wheat