AP Latin : Grammar, Syntax, and Scansion in Vergil

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Questions

Example Question #71 : Ap Latin Language

Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem,               5
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores               10
impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

How many ellisions are in line 9?

Possible Answers:

3

1

2

0

Correct answer:

0

Explanation:

Zero ellisions occur in line 9.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.1-12)

Example Question #12 : Scanning Dactylic Hexameter In Vergil

Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem,               5
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores               10
impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

How many ellisions occur throughout this excerpt?

Possible Answers:

3

8

6

5

Correct answer:

5

Explanation:

A total of 5 ellision occur throughout this excerpt. Remember, ellisions occur when one word ends with a vowel (or accusative singular ending), followed by a word beginning with a vowel.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.1-12)

Example Question #11 : Scanning Dactylic Hexameter In Vergil

1  Quod genus hoc hominum? Quaeve hunc tam barbara morem

2  permittit patria? Hospitio prohibemur harenae;

3  bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra.

4  Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma

5  at sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi.

6  Rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo iustior alter,

7  nec pietate fuit, nec bello maior et armis.

In line 5 ("at…nefandi"), the metrical pattern of the first four feet is __________.

Possible Answers:

spondee - dactyl - dactyl - spondee

spondee – dactyl – spondee – spondee

dactyl – dactyl – spondee – spondee

dactyl – dactyl – dactyl – spondee

Correct answer:

spondee - dactyl - dactyl - spondee

Explanation:

The initial “e” in "sperate" is long by nature, which makes the first foot a spondee. The last “e” of "sperate" and the first “e” in "deos" are short, making the second foot a dactyl. The first two syllables of "memores" are short, making the third foot a dactyl. Because two consonants “nd” follow the “a” in "fandi," the “a” is long, making the fourth foot a spondee.

(Passage adapted from The Aeneid of Vergil 1. 539-546)

Example Question #1 : Syntax In Vergil

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

The underlined word "gemini" in line 4 refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

Orbibus

Angues

Sollemnis

Alta

Correct answer:

Angues

Explanation:

The word "gemini" in line 4 is nominative plural. Since the only nominative plural word in this sentence is "angues," we know it must be describing "angues."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #1 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

What is the subject of "aestuat" (line 3)?

Possible Answers:

Gurges

Turbidus

Caeno

Vasta

Correct answer:

Gurges

Explanation:

The subject of "aestuat" is "gurges." "Gurges" comes from "gurges, gurgitis." It is the only noun in the nominative case. "Turbidus" is an adjective describing "gurges," so it is not the subject itself, and "vasto" and "caeno" are both in the ablative case.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #3 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

What is the case of "flumina" (line 4)?

Possible Answers:

Vocative

Ablative

Accusative

Nominative

Correct answer:

Accusative

Explanation:

"Flumina" comes from the word "flumen, fluminis," a neuter third-declension noun. Here, it is acting as the object of "servat," so it is in the accusative case.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #4 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

"Cui" in line 5 refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

Charon

flumina

gurges

Cocyto

Correct answer:

Charon

Explanation:

From context, we know that "cui" must refer to Charon. At this point in the passage, the author is describing the appearance of Charon.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #5 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

What is the case of "parentum" (line 14)?

Possible Answers:

Genitive

Dative

Nominative

Accusative

Correct answer:

Genitive

Explanation:

"Parentum" comes from the third declension noun "parens, parentis." "Parentum" is the genitive plural form.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #6 : Syntax In Vergil

Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem,               5
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores               10
impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

What is the main verb of the sentence "Musa . . . impulerit" (lines 8 -11)?

Possible Answers:

Volvere

Dolens

Pietate

Impulerit

Correct answer:

Impulerit

Explanation:

The main verb of this sentence, which governs all the other verbs, is "impulerit."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.1-12)

Example Question #7 : Syntax In Vergil

Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu
'dic,' ait, 'o virgo, quid vult concursus ad amnem?
quidve petunt animae? vel quo discrimine ripas
hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt?'              
olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos:                      5
'Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles,
Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem,
di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen.
haec omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est . . .

"Dic" (line 2) translates as which of the following?

Possible Answers:

They told

She tells

He says

Tell

Correct answer:

Tell

Explanation:

The form "dic" comes from the verb "dico, dicere, dixi, dictus," and is the imperative form (command). The most appropriate translation here is tell.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.317-325)

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