AP Latin : Grammar, Syntax, and Scansion in Vergil

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #8 : Syntax In Vergil

Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu
'dic,' ait, 'o virgo, quid vult concursus ad amnem?
quidve petunt animae? vel quo discrimine ripas
hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt?'              
olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos:                      5
'Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles,
Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem,
di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen.
haec omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est . . .

What is the role of "deum" in line 6?

Possible Answers:

Genitive describing "proles"

Genitive describing "Cocyti"

Direct object of "vides"

Accusative place where

Correct answer:

Direct object of "vides"

Explanation:

"Deum" is in the accusative case because it is acting as the object of the verb "vides."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.317-325)

Example Question #21 : Grammar, Syntax, And Scansion In Vergil

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

The "-que" in line 3 connects which of the following?

Possible Answers:

"Agnovit" and "stetit"

"Agnovit" and "primum"

"Agnovit" and "umbras"

"Agnovit" and "iuxta"

Correct answer:

"Agnovit" and "stetit"

Explanation:

The enclitic "-que" acts as a connector of the word it is attached to and a word that precedes it. "-Que" is being used to connect two actions in this sentence: "agnovit" and "stetit."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

Example Question #22 : Grammar, Syntax, And Scansion In Vergil

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

What is the case of "infelix" in line 7?

Possible Answers:

Ablative

Nominative

Vocative

Accusative

Correct answer:

Vocative

Explanation:

The word "infelix" is in the vocative case. We know this because Dido is speaking to herself at this point in the passage. She is referring to herself by name; this is an example of direct address, which is always in the vocative case in Latin. Since "infelix" is being used to describe Dido, it must also be in the vocative case.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

Example Question #11 : Syntax In Vergil

1  Quod genus hoc hominum? Quaeve hunc tam barbara morem

2  permittit patria? Hospitio prohibemur harenae;

3  bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra.

4  Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma

5  at sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi.

6  Rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo iustior alter,

7  nec pietate fuit, nec bello maior et armis.

A rhetorical device found in line 7 is __________.

Possible Answers:

prolepsis

metaphor

pleonasm

tmesis

Correct answer:

pleonasm

Explanation:

The answer is "pleonasm," or the use of superfluous words. Ilioneus specifies that Aeneas is strong in "bello" and "armis," which both refer to war in Latin. Either one would have been enough to complete the meaning. The other choices are not present: "metaphor" is identifying one thing as an unrelated thing for literary or rhetorical effect, "tmesis" refers to the separation of a compound word into two parts, and "prolepsis" is the use of a word sooner than it should appear.

(Passage adapted from The Aeneid of Vergil 1. 539-546)

Example Question #22 : Grammar, Syntax, And Scansion In Vergil

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

"Referens" in line 4 is an example of a __________.

Possible Answers:

present active participle

future passive participle

future active participle

perfect passive participle

Correct answer:

present active participle

Explanation:

All words that end in the "-ns," "-ntis" endings in Latin are examples of present active participles.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #81 : Syllabus Passages

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

What is the tense, voice, and mood of "fit" in line 9?

Possible Answers:

Future active indicative

Present passive indicative

Present active subjunctive

Present passive subjunctive

Correct answer:

Present passive indicative

Explanation:

The word "fit" comes from the verb "fio," "fieri," "factus sum," a passive deponent verb (passive form of "facio," "facere"). This is the present active indicative form of that word.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #24 : Grammar, Syntax, And Scansion In Vergil

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

What is the case of the underlined word "corpora" in line 14?

Possible Answers:

Nominative plural

Nominative singular

Accusative plural

Ablative singular

Correct answer:

Accusative plural

Explanation:

The word "corpora" comes from the third declension, neuter noun "corpus," "corporis." The ending "-a" can only be nominative or accusative plural for words like this. "Corpora" cannot be the subject of this sentence, however, because both of the verbs are singular and it is not referring to any group of things. Therefore, we know that "corpora" must be in the accusative case. In fact, it is the direct object of the verb "implicat."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #25 : Grammar, Syntax, And Scansion In Vergil

Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursu
contendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras.
Est in secessu longo locus: insula portum
efficit obiectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto            
frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos.

"Cursu" in line 1 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

ablative of manner

ablative place where

ablative absolute

supine

Correct answer:

ablative of manner

Explanation:

The word "cursu" is an example of ablative of manner. The ablative supine is only used with nouns or adjectives, which are not present in this part of the sentence. "Cursu" is in the ablative case because it describes the verb "petere." That is, it describes the way in which the Trojans are seeking (with zeal or in a certain direction) and not the means by which they are seeking and not where they are.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.157-161)

Example Question #1 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

"O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt!"
Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis.
Infert se saeptus nebula, mirabile dictu,
per medios, miscetque viris, neque cernitur ulli.

"Mirabile dictu" is an example of a(n) __________.

Possible Answers:

supine phrase

adjectives

ablative absolute

adverb

Correct answer:

supine phrase

Explanation:

"Mirabile dictu" is a common supine phrase that means wonderful to say.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.436-440)

Example Question #2 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Haec dum Dardanio Aeneae miranda videntur,
dum stupet, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno,             
regina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido,
incessit magna iuvenum stipante caterva.

"Obtutu" in line 2 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

ablative of manner

nominative subject of "haeret"

accusative direct object

supine

Correct answer:

ablative of manner

Explanation:

The word "obtutu" comes from "obtutus," "obtutus," a fourth declension word. The form of the word is ablative singular, describing the verb "haeret." Therefore, it is ablative of manner.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.494-497)

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors