AP Latin : Grammar, Syntax, and Scansion in Vergil

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Questions

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Example Question #81 : Vergil

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
'aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis               
ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnis.
hic rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu
sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,          5
tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.'
atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat               
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu)
'quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem?           10
filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum?
qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso!  

In line 1, "pater" is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

an adjective

a name

a direct object

an appositive

Correct answer:

an appositive

Explanation:

In this sentence, "pater" is being used to describe Anchises, but is a nominative noun, just like the word "Anchises." When you use one noun to rename another, it is acting as the appositive of that noun.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.854-865)

Example Question #82 : Vergil

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
'aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis               
ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnis.
hic rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu
sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,          5
tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.'
atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat               
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu)
'quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem?           10
filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum?
qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso!  

"Filius" in line 11 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

tmesis

simile

oxymoron

prolepsis

Correct answer:

prolepsis

Explanation:

The word "filius" appears in this line/sentence much sooner than it normally would. It would make the most sense for "filius" to appear before "magna" in this sentence. This use of a word sooner than expected is called prolepsis.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.854-865)

Example Question #31 : Grammar, Syntax, And Scansion In Vergil

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
'aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis               
ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnis.
hic rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu
sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,          5
tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.'
atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat               
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu)
'quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem?           10
filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum?
qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso!  

The phrase "insignis spoliis opimis" (line 2) is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

ablative of accompaniment

ablative place where

ablative absolute

ablative of comparison

Correct answer:

ablative absolute

Explanation:

In the phrase "insignis spoliis opimis," we have the use of an adjective denoting some sort of action (participle) and a noun in the ablative case in order to indicate a completed action. This is characteristic of an ablative absolute.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.854-865)

Example Question #1 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

The phrase "per umbras obscuram" (line 3-4) is an example of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Pleonasm

Hysteron Proteron

Zeugma

Metaphor

Correct answer:

Pleonasm

Explanation:

In lines 3 and 4, Vergil uses the words "per umbras obscuram" to emphasize the difficulty Aeneas is having seeing Dido. She is referred to as "obscuram"—shadowy or barely visible, but, as is stated in the previous lines, we already know that Dido is walking away from Aeneas and that he is viewing her through shadows. The addition of "obscuram" is a little redundant. This redundant or superfluous use of words is an example of pleonasm.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

Example Question #91 : Vergil

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

"Vidisse . . . lunam" (line 5) is an example of what sentence construction?

Possible Answers:

Conditional sentence

Indirect statement

Relative clause

Ablative absolute

Correct answer:

Indirect statement

Explanation:

In this phrase, you have a main verb—"putat"followed by the infinitive "vidisse." The infinitive, however, is governing the rest of the phrase "per nubila lunam," which all function as the object of "vidisse." This is an example of an indirect statement, which is a type of phrase typically introduced by some sort of thinking verb like "putat" and is characterized by the presence of an accusative subject and an infinitive main verb. No subject is present here, however, because that is all being handled by the verb "vidisse." The phrase translates as: She thought that she saw the moon through the clouds.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

Example Question #12 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

1 Quod genus hoc hominum? Quaeve hunc tam barbara morem

2  permittit patria? Hospitio prohibemur harenae;

3  bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra.

4  Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma

5  at sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi.

6  Rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo iustior alter,

7  nec pietate fuit, nec bello maior et armis.

In line 1, what is the grammatical function of "hominum"?

Possible Answers:

Genitive of quality

Direct object

Partitive genitive

Adjective describing genus

Correct answer:

Partitive genitive

Explanation:

The noun "homo, hominis", meaning man, is a third declension noun. It is thus genitive plural, which allows you to eliminate both "direct object" (which would have to be accusative), and "adjective describing genus". Don’t get it confused with second declension nouns! A genitive of quality describes a trait or a quality of something or someone, for example, “A man of great virtue.” This genitive is modifying "genus," or type, race, rendering the translation race of men. Thus, it is denoting part of something, not describing something.

(Passage adapted from The Aeneid of Vergil 1. 539-546)

Example Question #13 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

1  Quod genus hoc hominum? Quaeve hunc tam barbara morem

2  permittit patria? Hospitio prohibemur harenae;

3  bella cient, primaque vetant consistere terra.

4  Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma

5  at sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi.

6  Rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo iustior alter,

7  nec pietate fuit, nec bello maior et armis.

In line 6, what case is "nobis"?

Possible Answers:

Ablative of agent

Dative of agent

Ablative of comparison

Dative of possession

Correct answer:

Dative of possession

Explanation:

You have to use context here, because "nobis" could be either ablative or dative. There is no passive verb, so we can eliminate “ablative of agent.” Without a comparative adjective, we can also eliminate “ablative of comparison.” We are left with the two datives. Because the clause has a nominative, a form of "sum," and a dative noun (or in this case, pronoun), "nobis" is a dative of possession.

(Passage adapted from The Aeneid of Vergil 1. 539-546)

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