AP Biology : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #61 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is not indicative of a menstrual disorder?

Possible Answers:

Heavy flow

Irregular cycles

Ovulation does not occur

Ovulation occurs midway through the cycle

Correct answer:

Ovulation occurs midway through the cycle

Explanation:

Menstrual disorders include a heavy flow (menorrhagia), irregular cycles (amenorrhea, polymenorrhea, metrorhagia, and oligomenorrhea), and no ovulation (anovulation).

Example Question #62 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is true regarding menstrual cycles in individuals living in the developing world?

Possible Answers:

Age of menarche is earlier

Higher hormone levels

Thicker cervical mucus

Age of menarche is later

Correct answer:

Age of menarche is later

Explanation:

There are variations in the age of menarche by geographic location and environmental conditions. In developing countries, the age of menarche is later than in industrialized nations.

Example Question #63 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

The endometrium is a membrane in which of the following female reproductive parts?

Possible Answers:

Cervix

Uterus

Ovary

Vagina

Correct answer:

Uterus

Explanation:

The endometrium is a mucus membrane in the uterus of the female reproductive tract. The endometrium changes thickness based on hormone levels and is shed during the menstrual cycle if fertilization does not occur.

Example Question #64 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

During which of the following pregnancy stages can the mother begin to feel fetal movement?

Possible Answers:

First trimester

Third trimester

Second trimester

Fetal movement cannot be felt during pregnancy

Correct answer:

Second trimester

Explanation:

Human pregnancy can be divided into three trimesters, each categorized by different symptoms and stages of fetal development. During the second trimester of pregnancy, which occurs between 13 and 28 weeks, fetal movement can be felt. This is often called “quickening,” which is the stirring of the fetus.

Example Question #65 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is indicative of the third trimester of pregnancy?

Possible Answers:

Fetal head descent

Morning sickness

Implantation

Initial fetal movement

Correct answer:

Fetal head descent

Explanation:

The third trimester of pregnancy takes place during weeks 29 and 40. During this stage of pregnancy, women continue to gain weight, the fetus moves regularly, and the fetal head descends. The descent of the fetal head is important in easing maternal breathing and positioning the fetus for future delivery.

Example Question #66 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes the theory behind the evolutionary adaptation of morning sickness in pregnant women?

Possible Answers:

Prevents mothers from ingesting toxins

Stimulates the pituitary gland

Exercises abdominal muscles

Prevents the mother from gaining weight

Correct answer:

Prevents mothers from ingesting toxins

Explanation:

Morning sickness is the feeling of nausea and vomiting that occurs in many women during the first trimester of pregnancy. The physiological causes behind morning sickness include low blood sugar, an increased sensitivity to odors, and increased levels of estrogen and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. It is believed that morning sickness evolved in order to prevent the mother from ingesting toxins that could harm the developing fetus. This is supported by the fact that during the time morning sickness occurs, the fetus is highly sensitive to toxins.

Example Question #67 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is not an indicator of pregnancy?

Possible Answers:

Swelling

Increased urination

Back pain

Vaginal tearing

Correct answer:

Vaginal tearing

Explanation:

Common symptoms and indicators of pregnancy include swelling, increased urination, and back pain. Vaginal tearing is not an indicator or symptom of pregnancy, instead it is a possible occurrence during childbirth when the child exits the vagina.

Example Question #68 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is true regarding the placenta?

Possible Answers:

The placenta develops only during the first trimester of pregnancy

Placentas develop only from the blastocyst

The placenta is expelled two weeks after childbirth 

The placenta develops from both the blastocyst and the maternal uterine lining

Correct answer:

The placenta develops from both the blastocyst and the maternal uterine lining

Explanation:

The placenta is a structure that allows for nutrient, waste, and oxygen exchange between the mother and developing fetus during pregnancy. It is connected the fetus by the umbilical cord and contains umbilical arteries and umbilical veins to facilitate exchange. The placenta is derived from the blastocyst and maternal uterine lining starting at implantation and develops throughout pregnancy. The placenta is expelled from the mother immediately after childbirth.

Example Question #69 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which part of the developing blastocyst becomes the placenta in mammals?

Possible Answers:

Embryoblast

Yolk

Trophoblast

Blastocoel

Correct answer:

Trophoblast

Explanation:

The trophoblast is a layer of cells that surround the blastocyst. The trophoblast becomes the outer layer of the placenta and further differentiates into syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells that contribute to placentation.

Example Question #70 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following choices connects the developing fetus to the maternal placenta?

Possible Answers:

Amniotic sac

Umbilical cord

Fetal villi

Endometrial villi

Correct answer:

Umbilical cord

Explanation:

During fetal development, the umbilical cord is a structure that connects the fetus to the maternal placenta. The umbilical cord contains umbilical arteries and the umbilical vein, allowing oxygen, nutrient, and waste exchange between the mother and fetus. It develops from the yolk sac and allantois in the fifth week of development and is clamped or cut following childbirth.

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