AP Biology : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #51 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following hormones do most pregnancy tests look for?

Possible Answers:

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Estrogen

Human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG)

Progesterone

Correct answer:

Human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG)

Explanation:

Most pregnancy tests look for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The hormone hCG is secreted by the outer layer of the blastocyst, called the synctiotrophoblast, and later the placenta.

Example Question #51 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best identifies the correct sequence of phases in the uterine cycle?

Possible Answers:

Proliferative phase, menstruation, and secretory phase

Secretory phase, menstruation, and proliferative phase

Proliferative phase, secretory phase, and menstruation

Menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase

Correct answer:

Menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase

Explanation:

The menstrual cycle is the process of preparing the human female body for potential pregnancy. The cycle can be divided into two stages—the ovarian cycle and the uterine cycle. The uterine cycle has three phases that are called menstruation, the proliferative phase, and the secretory phase.

Example Question #52 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following identifies when the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) manifests during the menstrual cycle of human females?

Possible Answers:

At the time of menstruation

At ovulation

1 to 2 weeks prior to menstruation

At the time of implantation

Correct answer:

1 to 2 weeks prior to menstruation

Explanation:

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a set of physical and emotional symptoms that occur 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation. The exact cause of PMS is not known but most likely involves hormonal changes, with the severity of PMS being influenced by environmental factors. Common symptoms include acne, bloating, and mood changes.

Example Question #53 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is expelled through the vagina during menstruation?

Possible Answers:

Placenta

Uterine lining

Ovaries

Fallopian tube lining

Correct answer:

Uterine lining

Explanation:

Menstruation is the part of the female reproductive cycle in which the uterine lining is expelled through the vagina when the released oocyte is not fertilized. The onset of menstrual periods is called menarche and the cessation is called menopause. Menstruation occurs due to a decrease in progesterone levels and is often accompanied by cramping.

Example Question #54 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Along with the thickening of the uterine lining, which of the following also develops during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle?

Possible Answers:

The number of oogonia

Uterine size

Cervical mucus

Fimbria

Correct answer:

Cervical mucus

Explanation:

During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, the high levels of estrogen cause the development of the uterine lining and fertile cervical mucus. This fertile cervical mucus is alkaline and thin to allow for sperm penetration.

Example Question #55 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes the effect of increased progesterone levels from the use of progesterone birth control pills?

Possible Answers:

Prevents ovulation

Inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

All of these

Inhibits follicle development

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Progesterone birth control pills function to increase progesterone levels in the individual. This inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which, in turn, inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. The drops in LH and FSH levels halt follicle development, thereby preventing ovulation.

Example Question #56 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following sets of two hormones are found in combination birth control pills?

Possible Answers:

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone

Progesterone and estrogen

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen

Correct answer:

Progesterone and estrogen

Explanation:

Combination birth control pills contain estrogen and progesterone. Supplementing progesterone levels inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion, follicle development, and ovulation. Estrogen supplementation decreases FSH, thereby inhibiting follicle development and ovulation. The combination pill decreases breakthrough bleeding but has more withdrawal symptoms.

Example Question #132 : Reproductive System

Which of the following is not a method esed to test fertility?

Possible Answers:

Monitoring the cervical mucus

Ovulation predictor kits

Calendar tracking

Pituitary gland testing

Correct answer:

Pituitary gland testing

Explanation:

Common methods of fertility testing include: calendar tracking, ovulation predictor kits, and monitory physical symptoms. Calendar tracking determines fertility by cycle length. Ovulation predictor kits measure luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in an individual’s urine. Monitoring physical symptoms such as cervical mucus and basal body temperature are also a good method of tracking fertility.

Example Question #51 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes when a female most fertile during the menstrual cycle?

Possible Answers:

During menstruation

Ovulation and a few days preceding it

3 days after menstruation

Follicular phase

Correct answer:

Ovulation and a few days preceding it

Explanation:

During the menstrual cycle, the time when fertility peaks is at ovulation and a few days preceding it. At this point, sperm can survive in the female reproductive tract until oocyte release.

Example Question #52 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is true for female individual’s with “amenorrhea”?

Possible Answers:

No ovulation

Light menstrual flow

Irregular menstrual cycles

Heavy menstrual flow

Correct answer:

Irregular menstrual cycles

Explanation:

Amenorrhea is a condition where menstrual cycles are irregular and rare, occurring every 3 to 6 months.

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