AP Biology : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1623 : Ap Biology

Which of the following characteristics is true regarding follicle development in the ovaries?

Possible Answers:

Only one follicle develops per menstrual cycle 

There are competing follicles and hormones that promote the development of the dominant follicle 

Multiple follicles develop and release oocytes each menstrual cycle 

Genetic damage causes all other follicles to arrest development, allowing the dominant follicle to form

Correct answer:

There are competing follicles and hormones that promote the development of the dominant follicle 

Explanation:

During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the development of multiple follicles. The follicles compete with each other and the most developed follicle becomes the dominant follicle. The dominant follicle will release an oocyte during ovulation.

Example Question #1624 : Ap Biology

Which of the following best describes what happens to an egg cell if it does not get fertilized by a sperm cell in humans?

Possible Answers:

It returns to the ovary 

It disintegrates and is expelled from the body

It implants and is eventually expelled from the body 

It remains in the fallopian tube

Correct answer:

It disintegrates and is expelled from the body

Explanation:

Oocytes are released from the dominant follicle and travel down the fallopian tube. If the oocyte is not fertilized, it will disintegrate and be expelled from the body by way of menstruation.

Example Question #1625 : Ap Biology

Which of the following best describes what the corpus luteum develops from in female humans?

Possible Answers:

The dominant follicle 

An unfertilized oocyte

The non-dominant follicles 

The fimbria of the fallopian tube

Correct answer:

The dominant follicle 

Explanation:

The corpus luteum is a structure in female humans that develops from the dominant follicle after ovulation. The corpus luteum is involved in the endocrine system and it secretes progesterone to maintain the endometrial lining if the released oocyte is fertilized. If the oocyte is not fertilized, it stops secreting progesterone, causing the shedding of the endometrial lining and degeneration of the corpus luteum.

Example Question #1624 : Ap Biology

Which of the following hormones is secreted by the corpus luteum and helps to build up the endometrial lining?

Possible Answers:

Progesterone

Estrogen

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Correct answer:

Progesterone

Explanation:

The corpus luteum develops from the dominant follicle after ovulation. It secretes progesterone to build up the endometrial lining and promote oocyte implantation. If the oocyte does not get fertilized, then the corpus luteum stops secreting progesterone. This causes the degeneration of the corpus luteum and menstruation.

Example Question #1626 : Ap Biology

Which of the following best describes the correct order of stages in the ovarian cycle of the menstrual cycle?

Possible Answers:

Follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovulation

Ovulation, luteal phase, and follicular phase

Luteal phase, ovulation, and follicular phase

Follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase

Correct answer:

Follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase

Explanation:

The menstrual cycle is the development of the female reproductive system for potential pregnancy. The cycle can be divided into two parts—the ovarian cycle and the uterine cycle. The ovarian cycle has three phases—the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase.

Example Question #1627 : Ap Biology

Which of the following is true regarding female women post menopause?

Possible Answers:

They ovulate once per month

They have a thick endometrial lining 

They exhibit increased fertility due to a higher oocyte release rate

There is a cessation of ovulation and fertility 

Correct answer:

There is a cessation of ovulation and fertility 

Explanation:

Menopause is a stage when female humans stop ovulating and menstruating; therefore, they can no longer have children. Menopause typically occurs between 45 to 55 years. Common symptoms include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Menopause occurs due to the end of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries.

Example Question #1625 : Ap Biology

Which of the following is not an example of surgical menopause?

Possible Answers:

Removal of the fallopian tube(s)

Removal of the breasts

Removal of the ovaries

Removal of the uterus

Correct answer:

Removal of the breasts

Explanation:

Surgical menopause is a process in which a surgical procedure induces menopause. The procedures that do this are an oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries), hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), and salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of the fallopian tubes). These surgeries create a decrease in hormone levels that bring about menopausal symptoms.

Example Question #42 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is not true regarding the role of progesterone in the luteal phase?

Possible Answers:

A drop in the concentration of progesterone leads to menstruation

High concentrations of progesterone stimulate FSH and LH secretion

High concentrations of progesterone inhibit FSH and LH secretion

It is secreted by the corpus luteum

Correct answer:

High concentrations of progesterone stimulate FSH and LH secretion

Explanation:

During the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle during the menstrual cycle, progesterone levels can either maintain pregnancy or prepare the female human for menstruation. High FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) levels stimulate the formation of the corpus luteum from the follicle. The corpus luteum then secretes progesterone. In a negative feedback loop, the high levels of progesterone inhibit FSH and LH production, degrading the corpus luteum. The drop in progesterone levels leads to menstruation.

Example Question #41 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes what happens to the corpus luteum when the oocyte is fertilized?

Possible Answers:

It is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

It travels down the fallopian tube

It is maintained by estrogen 

It degrades into the corpus albicans

Correct answer:

It is maintained by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

Explanation:

After the oocyte is fertilized, the outer layers of the blastocyst secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The hCG stimulates the corpus luteum to keep secreting progesterone in order to maintain a thick endometrial lining to support the developing embryo.

Example Question #41 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following symptoms accompanies ovulation in some women?

Possible Answers:

Nausea

Hot flashes

Abdominal cramps

Vomiting

Correct answer:

Abdominal cramps

Explanation:

In some women, ovulation is accompanied by abdominal cramping. The pain is typically sudden and lasts no more than a few days.

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