AP Biology : Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #61 : Reproductive Physiology

Where does the process of spermatogenesis occur in humans?

Possible Answers:

Ejaculatory duct

Epididymis

Seminiferous tubules

Seminal vesicle

Correct answer:

Seminiferous tubules

Explanation:

Spermatogenesis—the formation of spermatozoa—occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Seminiferous tubules are composed of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells. There is a high concentration of testosterone present in these tubules. High testosterone concentrations support sperm development. The epididymis is the site of sperm maturation. Last, the seminal vesicles are small glands that produce the majority of the seminal fluid. 

Example Question #62 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is not one of the ways that Sertoli cells promote sperm maturation?

Possible Answers:

Protecting sperm from the immune system

Secreting testosterone

Contributing to testicular fluid

Riding the sperm of excess cytoplasm through phagocytosis

Correct answer:

Secreting testosterone

Explanation:

Sertoli cells are located in the seminiferous tubules and aid in spermiogenesis. There are many ways that Sertoli cells facilitate the process of sperm maturation including the following: the contribution of testicular fluid, phagocytosis of excess cytoplasm, and the protection of sperm from the immune system. Leydig cells—interstitial cells—are responsible for secretion of testosterone.

Example Question #71 : Reproductive System

Which of the following is not a true characteristic of the oogonia?

Possible Answers:

They are diploid

The production of oogonia continues throughout the life of the individual 

They are produced in a process called oocytogenesis

They are formed prior to birth

Correct answer:

The production of oogonia continues throughout the life of the individual 

Explanation:

Oogonia are diploid germ line cells that are precursor ova cells. They are produced during a process called oocytogenesis before and sometimes shortly after birth; there are believed to be a finite number of oogonia in each female at the time of birth.

Example Question #72 : Reproductive System

During which of the following stages of meiosis are primary oocytes' growth arrested in prior to the onset of puberty?

Possible Answers:

Prophase II

Metaphase I

Metaphase II

Prophase I

Correct answer:

Prophase I

Explanation:

Primary oocytes are diploid germ line cells that form from oogonia. Primary oocytes are immature ova. In order to develop further, primary oocytes enter into ootidogenesis, or meiosis to produce secondary oocytes. This process is arrested at prophase I late in fetal development. The period of arrest during ootidogenesis is called the dictyate stage and is characterized by a lack of cellular translation. This arrest is caused by blocked mRNA binding sites, which prevents translation initiation factors from binding. The dictyate stage ends before puberty by an increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). 

Example Question #73 : Reproductive System

When is the process of ootidogenesis completed?

Possible Answers:

At the time of fertilization 

Just before the onset of puberty 

At birth

At the time of ovulation 

Correct answer:

At the time of fertilization 

Explanation:

Ootidogenesis is the production of secondary ooctyes from primary ooctyes through meiosis. Ootidogenesis features two periods of developmental arrest—dictyate—during the prophase I stage of meiosis I and during metaphase II of meiosis II. The dictyate stage of arrest ends at the onset of puberty due to a spike in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Ootidogenesis then continues until the second arrest period during metaphase II. This period ends at fertilization and allows the completion of ootidogenesis.

Example Question #74 : Reproductive System

Which of the following characteristics is true for secondary oocytes?

Possible Answers:

They are produced by a process called ootidogenesis

They arrest development prior to puberty 

They are formed through mitosis

They are diploid

Correct answer:

They are produced by a process called ootidogenesis

Explanation:

Secondary oocytes are haploid cells that are produced by primary oocytes through meiosis in a process called ootidogenesis. Secondary oocytes remain arrested in the metaphase II stage of meiosis until fertilization, when ootidogenesis is completed. The process of ootidogenesis also produces polar bodies.

Example Question #75 : Reproductive System

Which of the following terms best describes the process of polar body formation?

Possible Answers:

Symmetrical cellular division

Nondisjunction

Asymmetrical cellular division

Apoptosis

Correct answer:

Asymmetrical cellular division

Explanation:

Polar bodies are haploid cells produced during ootidogenesis. They are smaller than secondary oocytes due to asymmetric cell division. During asymmetrical cell division a smaller volume of cytoplasm is partitioned into the polar bodies than to the secondary oocytes. This makes polar bodies not viable for fertilization. Polar bodies are often degraded, but they can also remain in the human body.

Example Question #76 : Reproductive System

Where in the human body does oogenesis take place?

Possible Answers:

Uterus

Fallopian tubes

Ovaries

Cervix

Correct answer:

Ovaries

Explanation:

Oogenesis, or the formation of egg cells, takes place in the ovaries. Specifically, oogenesis takes place in the follicles—a pack of cells surrounding developing oocytes that is located within the ovaries.

Example Question #77 : Reproductive System

Which of the following is true regarding the number of follicles in aging women?

Possible Answers:

Increases

Decreases substantially

Decreases slightly 

Remains the same

Correct answer:

Decreases substantially

Explanation:

Follicles are packs of somatic cells that surround developing oocytes in the ovaries. Follicles develop through a process called folliculogenesis that occurs in tandem with oogenesis. At birth, women have all of their follicles; however, this number decreases as women age due to double stranded breaks in the DNA of primary oocytes contained within primordial follicles.

Example Question #78 : Reproductive System

During which of the following stages of folliculogenesis are the developing follicles dormant?

Possible Answers:

Tertiary follicle

Primordial follicle

Primary follicle

Pre-ovulatory follicle

Correct answer:

Primordial follicle

Explanation:

Folliculogenesis is the process of follicle development, which occurs simultaneously with oogenesis. The initial stage of follicle development is when dormant primordial follicles are formed prior to birth. Primordial follicles are composed of simple layers of cells. The exit from dormancy and initiation of further development is controlled by a complex interplay of hormones. During folliculogenesis, mitotic cell divisions and hormones promote development and increase the complexity of follicles.

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