AP Biology : Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #71 : Reproductive System

Which of the following two cell layers make up mature follicles?

Possible Answers:

Epithelial and theca cells

Ovarian and follicular cells

Epithelial and granulosa cells

Granulosa and theca cells

Correct answer:

Granulosa and theca cells

Explanation:

Mature follicles contain two cell layers, theca cells and granulosa cells, which are formed during folliculogensis. Granulosa cells are present from the primordial follicle stage onwards and become surrounded by theca cells during the secondary follicle stage. After ovulation, theca cells secrete androgens and progesterone while granulosa cells secrete estrogen and progesterone.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Gametogenesis

During which of the following stages of oocyte development is the oocyte is released from the follicle?

Possible Answers:

Primary oocyte

Polar body

Oogonium

Secondary oocyte

Correct answer:

Secondary oocyte

Explanation:

Ovulation is the release of an oocyte from the follicle for fertilization. Upon release, the oocyte is a secondary oocyte arrested in the metaphase II stage of meiosis until fertilization.

Example Question #81 : Reproductive System

Which of the following is not a function of the cumulus oophorus?

Possible Answers:

Protect and provide energy substrates to the ooctye

The cumulus oophorus neither protects the oocyte nor provides it with energy substrates

Provide energy substrates to the oocyte

Protect the oocyte

Correct answer:

Protect and provide energy substrates to the ooctye

Explanation:

The cumulus oophorus is a cluster of cells surrounding the oocyte after ovulation. The cumulus oophorus protects the oocyte and provides it with the energy substrates needed for further development.

Example Question #71 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes the cause for the decrease in aging women’s ovarian reserves?

Possible Answers:

Lower levels of estrogen

Double stranded DNA breaks increase the rate of apoptosis

Endometrial breakdown

Decreased efficiency of double stranded DNA repair

Correct answer:

Decreased efficiency of double stranded DNA repair

Explanation:

As women age, the number of follicles and viable oocytes decrease; there is an inverse correlation between age and fertility. This is due to the decreased efficiency of the double stranded DNA break repair mechanism. The primordial follicles contain primary oocytes—formed by meiosis. They typically repair double stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination. As women age, the efficiency of this repair mechanism declines and leads to a depletion of viable oocytes. 

Example Question #1 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which statement describes the inheritance of mitochondrial DNA?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondrial DNA is solely inherited from the mother

Mitochondrial DNA is derived from an undefined mix between the mitochondrial DNA of the parents

Mitochondrial DNA is solely inherited from the father

Mitochondrial DNA is developed by the fetus, and is unrelated to either parent

Half of the mitochondrial DNA is inherited from the mother and half is inherited from the father

Correct answer:

Mitochondrial DNA is solely inherited from the mother

Explanation:

When a sperm and egg fuse to form a zygote, the nucleus of the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the egg. As a result, the father's genome is passed onto the offspring, but no cellular organelles from the sperm are transferred. Any DNA contained in the mitochondria must come from the mother's egg, and could not have come from the cytoplasm of the sperm. The offspring will inherit all mitochondrial DNA from the mother.

This allows geneticists to trace mitochondrial lineages to find distant ancestors and track the evolution of species.

Example Question #71 : Reproductive Physiology

What structure is responsible for secreting progesterone following ovulation?

Possible Answers:

Zona pellucida

Corpus luteum

Corpus albicans

Secondary follicle

Correct answer:

Corpus luteum

Explanation:

Following ovulation, the remaining follicle previously containing the egg is called the corpus luteum. This structure will release progesterone, and continue to do so if the egg is fertilized and a zygote is formed. If no pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum will degrade into the corpus albicans.

Example Question #3 : Understanding Other Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is caused by the luteal surge?

Possible Answers:

Oogenesis

Menstruation

Ovulation

Fertilization

Correct answer:

Ovulation

Explanation:

The luteal surge is characterized by a sharp increase in estradiol (estrogen) levels, which then causes an increase in luteinizing hormone levels. This event causes ovulation to take place.

Example Question #73 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following choices best describes where the secondary oocyte travels in the female reproductive tract after it is released from the follicle?

Possible Answers:

Vagina

Ovary

Fallopian tube

Uterus

Correct answer:

Fallopian tube

Explanation:

The release of the secondary oocyte from the follicle is called ovulation. During this process, a hole called the “stigma” is formed and it allows the secondary oocyte to leave the follicle surrounded by a layer of cells called the cumulus oophorus. After its release, the secondary oocyte enters the fallopian tube.

Example Question #74 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following hormones does not spike in concentration to trigger ovulation?

Possible Answers:

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Estrogen

Progesterone

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Correct answer:

Progesterone

Explanation:

Leading up to ovulation, the developing follicle secretes estrogen. Over time, this secretion increases estrogen concentration. This high concentration of estrogen triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. The spike in LH and FSH concentrations lead to the release of the secondary oocyte from the follicle. Progesterone, on the other hand, is only present at low concentrations at the time of ovulation. Progesterone levels rise after ovulation.

Example Question #75 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following molecular changes leading to ovulation is caused by a spike in luteinizing hormone (LH)?

Possible Answers:

The maturation of the secondary oocyte

A release of hormones that develop the zona pellucida

The release of proteolytic enzymes to form the stigma

 Meiotic recombination of the secondary oocyte

Correct answer:

The release of proteolytic enzymes to form the stigma

Explanation:

The slow increase in estrogen concentration leading up to ovulation triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland. The spike in LH initiates signal transduction pathways that release proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes create a hole, or stigma, in the follicle that allows the secondary oocyte to exit.

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