AP Biology : Reproductive Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #7 : Understanding Gametogenesis

Which of the following is not a true characteristic of gametocytes?

Possible Answers:

Gametocytes can divide by mitosis into other gametocytes

Male gametocytes are called spermatocytes

They are eukaryotic somatic cells

Female gametocytes are called oocytes

Correct answer:

They are eukaryotic somatic cells

Explanation:

Gametocytes are eukaryotic germ line cells. They can undergo mitosis to form more gametocytes or undergo meiosis to form gametids. Male gametocytes are called spermatocytes and female gametocytes are called oocytes.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Gametogenesis

Which of the following best describes the difference between a primary and secondary spermatocyte?

Possible Answers:

The secondary spermatocyte is diploid and the primary spermatocyte is haploid

The secondary spermatocyte forms during meiosis II and the primary spermatocyte forms during mitosis

The secondary spermatocyte is haploid and the primary spermatocyte is diploid

The secondary spermatocyte forms during mitosis and the primary spermatocyte forms during meiosis II

Correct answer:

The secondary spermatocyte is haploid and the primary spermatocyte is diploid

Explanation:

Spermatocytes are male gametocytes located in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Primary spermatocytes are diploid and form when spermatogonia—immature germ cells—enter into mitosis. Primary spermatocytes can then enter meiosis and produce haploid secondary spermatocytes after meiosis I.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Gametogenesis

Which of the following is not a true characteristic of spermatogonia?

Possible Answers:

They are germ line cells

They are haploid

They are undifferentiated

They develop into primary spermatocytes through mitosis

Correct answer:

They are haploid

Explanation:

Spermatogonia are diploid undifferentiated male germ cells located in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Spermatogonia are important in the process of spermatogenesis; they turn into primary spermatocytes via growth and maturation.

Example Question #10 : Understanding Gametogenesis

Which of the following terms is best defined as a mature, motile, and haploid sperm cell produced during spermatogenesis?

Possible Answers:

Spermatid

Spermatozoa

Secondary spermatocyte

Spermatogonium

Correct answer:

Spermatozoa

Explanation:

Mature sperm cells that are haploid, motile, and produced during spermatogenesis are called spermatozoa. Spermatids are haploid; however, they are immature. Spermatids will turn into spermatozoa once they mature.

Example Question #11 : Understanding Gametogenesis

Where does the human body store spermatozoa?

Possible Answers:

Epididymis

Seminal vesicle

Seminiferous tubules

Ejaculatory duct

Correct answer:

Epididymis

Explanation:

Spermatozoa are stored in the epididymis prior to ejaculation. Prior to entering the epididymis, spermatozoa are immotile; however, as they travel through the epididymis the cells mature and gain motility.

Example Question #51 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best describes how a sperm's axoneme develops during spermiogenesis?

Possible Answers:

DNA condensation

Mitochondrial clustering

Rearrangement of the Golgi apparatus

Microtubule growth from a single centriole

Correct answer:

Microtubule growth from a single centriole

Explanation:

Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis. In the process of spermiogenesis, spermatids develop into spermatozoa and form axoneme—the internal structure of the spermatozoa tails. It develops by way of microtubule growth from a single centriole that constructs the internal structure of the sperm tail. Mature spermatozoa have axonemes comprised of nine outer microtubule doublets and two central microtubules. These structures aid in motility.

Example Question #52 : Reproductive Physiology

In the process of spermiogenesis, the acrosome is derived from which of the following organelles?

Possible Answers:

Cytoplasm

Golgi apparatus

Centriole

Endoplasmic reticulum

Correct answer:

Golgi apparatus

Explanation:

Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis. In mature spermatozoa, the acrosome is the head of the cell and, in humans, contains digestive enzymes for ovum penetration. The acrosome develops during spermiogenesis when the Golgi apparatus surrounds the nucleus. 

Example Question #14 : Understanding Gametogenesis

Which of the following best describes where mitochondria are localized in spermatozoa?

Possible Answers:

Around the axoneme

At the acrosome

At the plasma membrane

Near condensed DNA

Correct answer:

Around the axoneme

Explanation:

Mitochondria cluster around the axoneme during spermiogenesis. They supply the energy needed for sperm movement, which is achieved through movement of the flagellum.

Example Question #53 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following best represents the effect of high testosterone concentrations within the seminiferous tubules that occurs during spermiogenesis?

Possible Answers:

Aids in axoneme formation

Removes excess organelles

Aids in the development of sperm motility

Removes excess cytoplasm

Correct answer:

Removes excess organelles

Explanation:

There is a high concentration of testosterone within the seminiferous tubules. The secretion of androgen-binding protein by Sertoli cells concentrates testosterone around cells undergoing spermiogenesis, The testosterone aids in the process of sperm maturation by removing excess organelles from the developing spermatozoa. 

Example Question #54 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following choices describes how the human body manages the heat sensitivity of the seminiferous tubules in order to protect the process of spermiogenesis?

Possible Answers:

Spermatozoa are immotile in the seminiferous tubules

It reduces catalytic activity 

It places the testes outside of the body

Hormones lower the temperature in the testes

Correct answer:

It places the testes outside of the body

Explanation:

The seminiferous tubules and developing spermatozoa within them are temperature-sensitive; they cannot tolerate high temperatures—including the temperature of the human body. In order to manage this, the testes are located outside of the human body in a sac of skin called the scrotum. This lowers the temperature of the seminiferous tubules to optimal levels. 

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