SAT II US History : SAT Subject Test in United States History

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #81 : Sat Subject Test In United States History

Which of the following statements is most representative of the thinking behind supply-side economics?

Possible Answers:

The wealthy should have a larger tax burden in order to pay down the budget deficit.

Labor unions should have more protections in their fights with large corporations.

Welfare and unemployment benefits should be increased to stimulate the spending power of the lower classes.

Tax breaks for large corporations will stimulate the economy by giving businesses more freedom to prosper.

Oil and natural gas companies should be more regulated to protect American citizens.

Correct answer:

Tax breaks for large corporations will stimulate the economy by giving businesses more freedom to prosper.

Explanation:

"Supply-side economics" gained their name from the fact they intended to benefit the suppliers of commercial goods, the businesses and manufacturers who made most of the products in the economy. Supply-side economics is most associated with President Ronald Reagan, who lobbied for massive tax cuts, deregulation of business, and large scale reduction of government spending. During Reagan's eight years in office, he managed to cut taxes, roll back corporate regulations, and slash welfare spending.

Example Question #6 : Representative Viewpoints In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

The U.S. Labor Movement supported all of the following EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

unionization of the workforce

restrictions on child labor

an eight hour work day

workplace safety laws

an increase in profits for factory owners

Correct answer:

an increase in profits for factory owners

Explanation:

The "Labor Movement" was a broad grouping of activists that sought to protect the safety and rights of workers in a variety of working class jobs. Throughout the late-nineteenth century, the full flowering of the Industrial Revolution had produced a widespread manufacturing sector centered on factories that employed children as young as 4, and the work hours were usually between 12 and 15 hours a day, six days a week. The labor movement sought to protect workers' rights in a number of ways, including shortening work hours, eliminating child labor, and unionizing the workforce. Most of all, they stood against the businessmen who owned the factories.

Example Question #1 : Sequence In U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Which of the following did not get created during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Hundred Days as President?

Possible Answers:

Civilian Conservation Corps

These were all created during the First Hundred Days of Roosevelt's presidency.

Public Works Administration

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Social Security Administration 

Correct answer:

Social Security Administration 

Explanation:

The only one of these programs not created during Roosevelt’s early days in office was the Social Security Administration. Roosevelt was elected at the height of the Great Depression and preached a platform of relief, recovery, and then reform. The idea was that first the government had to provide for relief for the poor and starving masses, and then it needed to assist recovery by creating jobs and encouraging the economy. Reform would follow at a later date to ensure something like the Great Depression could not happen again.

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

The Great Society was the name given to the Domestic policies of which Presidential administration?

Possible Answers:
Lyndon B. Johnson
Ronald Reagan
George Bush
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Jimmy Carter
Correct answer: Lyndon B. Johnson
Explanation:

The Great Society was the name given to the Domestic policies of President Lyndon Johnson’s Democratic administration. The primary intentions of the Great Society were the alleviation of poverty through economic growth and the removal of racial injustices, particularly in the South.  The Great Society closely resembled FDR’s New Deal program, both in directive and in scope. 

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

The Federal Securities Act of 1914                            .

Possible Answers:

built on the Sherman Anti-trust Act

gave the Federal Reserve the power to adjust interest rates on loans to banks

increased the size of the United States Army in the build-up to World War One

created a new Federal agency to regulate the sale of foods and medicine 

made corporate executives liable for any misrepresentation of their company’s stock

Correct answer:

made corporate executives liable for any misrepresentation of their company’s stock

Explanation:

The Federal Securities Act of 1914 was part of the movement to make corporations more responsible for the unethical practice of misrepresenting company stock. It was part of Wilson’s movement in general towards holding big businesses and banks accountable for their actions which had such dramatic effects on the lives of “average” Americans. 

Example Question #2 : Summary Of U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Bootleggers                        .

Possible Answers:

violated tariff laws

supported the immigration of Irish and Italian Catholics in the late 1800s and early 1900s

illegally sold and transported liquor during the Prohibition era

were Southerners who continued to vote Republican during reconstruction 

were Northerners who came to the South during the Reconstruction Era

Correct answer:

illegally sold and transported liquor during the Prohibition era

Explanation:

The term "bootlegger" refers to the illegal sale and transportation of liquor. Bootleggers were particularly wealthy and influential during the Prohibition Era. They were often co-opted into more concrete organizations and some contributed to the foundations of the United States mafia.

Example Question #1 : Summary Of U.S. Economic History From 1899 To The Present

Who organized and led the American Federation of Labor?

Possible Answers:

Samuel Gompers

Marcus Garvey 

John Deere

Booker T. Washington

John D. Rockefeller

Correct answer:

Samuel Gompers

Explanation:

The American Federation of Labor is one of the earliest and most prominent collective labor unions in the United States. It was organized from disaffected members of the Knights of Labor and was led in direction and motivation by Samuel Gompers. The American Federation of Labor came into existence during the economically stagnant 1890s, a time when class differences were becoming more pronounced. Socialism was drawing greater and greater support from the working classes, and the originally formed American Federation of Labor was an extremely socialist grouping; however, over the years as the economy continued to grow and conditions for the working classes greatly improved, the American Federation of Labor made its peace with capitalism and worked much more towards fitting into the system, instead of overhauling it. Samuel Gompers wasits leader for every year from its inception in 1886 to his death in the 1920s, (except for 1895). 

Example Question #81 : U.S. Economic History

Which Supreme Court case declared the Agricultural Adjustment Act to be unconstitutional?

Possible Answers:

Butler v. United States

Georgia v. Randolph

Mapp v. Ohio

City of Boerne v. Flores

Gideon v. Wainwright

Correct answer:

Butler v. United States

Explanation:

The case of Butler v. United States ruled that several components of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Primarily it stated that the act violated the proscribed and protected rights of the states to regulate agricultural management and taxation. 

Example Question #81 : Sat Subject Test In United States History

Which of these was not a consequence of the British economic policy of Mercantilism in the colonies? 

Possible Answers:
English and French colonies grew closer, in mutual protest to the manner in which they were being used to serve the metropole.
All goods bound for the colonies had to be processed first in England, before an import tax was applied, to protect English economic interests
Smuggling grew in usage as colonists illegally sought new markets for their goods
Certain goods, such as sugar, tobacco and cotton, could only be traded with England – shrinking the market that Southern plantation owners could sell to
New England shipbuilders benefitted from the protection offered by the Navigation Acts
Correct answer: English and French colonies grew closer, in mutual protest to the manner in which they were being used to serve the metropole.
Explanation:

The economic policy of Mercantilism was designed around the premise that the colonies existed to build up the supply of gold in Empire. To achieve this goal a nation had to build up a favorable balance of trade by exporting more than it imported. The primacy of this belief in Europe helped foster the dramatic race for Empire around the globe as each additional resource, manufacturing centre and market helped contribute to the balance of trade. New England shipbuilders benefitted from the Navigation Acts because they protected their enterprise from foreign competition. Southerners found the market for their goods shrinking as it could only be shipped to England, which in turn encouraged smuggling. Conversely, far from being brought closer together, the English and French colonies began to fight extensively in the mid-eighteenth century as English settlers began to spread North and West into French lands. 

Example Question #1 : U.S. Economic History From Pre Columbian History To 1789

What, primarily, allowed the first English colony at Jamestown to survive and flourish?

Possible Answers:
The rivalry with Spanish and French colonies that helped foster a spirit of solidarity and necessity amongst the English colonists
The establishment of tobacco farms that provided immediate wealth and prosperity to the land-owners
The constant influx of new colonists that brought with them fresh ideas and resources
Trade and aid provided by local Native American people
The shipping of goods from the metropole (London)
Correct answer: The establishment of tobacco farms that provided immediate wealth and prosperity to the land-owners
Explanation:

The establishment, by John Rolfe in 1619, of tobacco as the primary cash crop of the colony lead directly to economic prosperity in Jamestown and helped stem the tide of winter starvations that had previously blighted the colony. Although aid from the Native Americans was important, it was insufficient to prevent the colony slowly atrophying. 

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