IB Psychology SL : Options

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for IB Psychology SL

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Ib Psychology Sl

Which of the following is not hypothesized as a contributing factor of depression?

Possible Answers:

The cognitive triad

Low levels of serotonin in the brain

Genetic predisposition

Excess levels of dopamine in the brain

Learned helplessness

Correct answer:

Excess levels of dopamine in the brain

Explanation:

Genetics, low serotonin, learned helplessness, and the cognitive triad are all hypothesized to be contributing factors to depression; however, excess levels of dopamine contribute to schizophrenia, not depression.

Learned helplessness is the idea that a person has learned from past experiences that they cannot control parts of their life, which can contribute to depression. Beck's cognitive triad examines the explanations people make about themselves, their future, and their world. When something happens, someone can decide that it was either caused by them or caused by an external factor (internal/external), generalize the event to all events or keep it specific to the event at hand (global / specific), and decide whether he or she thinks it will continue in the future or will end soon (stable/unstable). When someone is depressed, they tend to believe that good events are external, specific, and unstable, while bad events are internal, global, and stable.

Example Question #1 : Options

Which of the following is not hypothesized as a contributing factor of depression?

Possible Answers:

Excess levels of dopamine in the brain

The cognitive triad

Low levels of serotonin in the brain

Learned helplessness

Genetic predisposition

Correct answer:

Excess levels of dopamine in the brain

Explanation:

Genetics, low serotonin, learned helplessness, and the cognitive triad are all hypothesized to be contributing factors to depression; however, excess levels of dopamine contribute to schizophrenia, not depression.

Learned helplessness is the idea that a person has learned from past experiences that they cannot control parts of their life, which can contribute to depression. Beck's cognitive triad examines the explanations people make about themselves, their future, and their world. When something happens, someone can decide that it was either caused by them or caused by an external factor (internal/external), generalize the event to all events or keep it specific to the event at hand (global / specific), and decide whether he or she thinks it will continue in the future or will end soon (stable/unstable). When someone is depressed, they tend to believe that good events are external, specific, and unstable, while bad events are internal, global, and stable.

Example Question #2 : Ib Psychology Sl

Five-year-old Jane uses words, images, and symbols to understand her world. She cannot yet reason logically and is egocentric. Which of Jean Piaget's developmental stages is Jane most likely experiencing?

Possible Answers:

Formal operational

Preoperational

Object permanence

Sensorimotor

Concrete operational

Correct answer:

Preoperational

Explanation:

Jane is in the preoperational stage of development, which occurs between ages two and seven. During this stage a child is egocentric, or unable to understand the perspective of others, and uses imagery and symbols. Sensorimotor is the first stage that occurs from birth to age two. During this stage a child uses the senses and develops object permanence, or the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. Note that object permanence is not a stage. The concrete operational stage occurs from ages seven to eleven. During this stage a child develops conservation, where a he or she understands that a substance does not change size just because its form changes. The formal operational stage occurs after age eleven and involves abstract logic and reasoning. 

Example Question #2 : Options

Five-year-old Jane uses words, images, and symbols to understand her world. She cannot yet reason logically and is egocentric. Which of Jean Piaget's developmental stages is Jane most likely experiencing?

Possible Answers:

Preoperational

Formal operational

Concrete operational

Sensorimotor

Object permanence

Correct answer:

Preoperational

Explanation:

Jane is in the preoperational stage of development, which occurs between ages two and seven. During this stage a child is egocentric, or unable to understand the perspective of others, and uses imagery and symbols. Sensorimotor is the first stage that occurs from birth to age two. During this stage a child uses the senses and develops object permanence, or the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. Note that object permanence is not a stage. The concrete operational stage occurs from ages seven to eleven. During this stage a child develops conservation, where a he or she understands that a substance does not change size just because its form changes. The formal operational stage occurs after age eleven and involves abstract logic and reasoning. 

Example Question #1 : Options

According to the American Psychological Association, a binge eating disorder occurs when a person experiences frequent outbursts of out of control eating. Unlike other disorders, such as bulimia, binge eaters do not purge their bodies of excess calories, which can result in high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and issues associated with obesity. Which of the following best describes the prevalence of binge eating disorders in males versus females?

Possible Answers:

Females are affected more than males

Males are affected about the same as females 

Binge eating disorder affects females exclusively 

Males are affected more than females

Binge eating disorder affects males exclusively 

Correct answer:

Males are affected about the same as females 

Explanation:

It is true that eating disorders primarily effect females; however, contrary to media depictions of eating disorders, males are still considered to be an at-risk population. About a quarter of preadolescent cases of anorexia occur in males. Likewise, the prevalence of binge eating disorder is about the same in males and females. 

Example Question #1 : Options

According to the American Psychological Association, a binge eating disorder occurs when a person experiences frequent outbursts of out of control eating. Unlike other disorders, such as bulimia, binge eaters do not purge their bodies of excess calories, which can result in high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and issues associated with obesity. Which of the following best describes the prevalence of binge eating disorders in males versus females?

Possible Answers:

Binge eating disorder affects females exclusively 

Males are affected about the same as females 

Females are affected more than males

Binge eating disorder affects males exclusively 

Males are affected more than females

Correct answer:

Males are affected about the same as females 

Explanation:

It is true that eating disorders primarily effect females; however, contrary to media depictions of eating disorders, males are still considered to be an at-risk population. About a quarter of preadolescent cases of anorexia occur in males. Likewise, the prevalence of binge eating disorder is about the same in males and females. 

Example Question #1 : Options

A 23-year-old female is contemplating taking a job after college graduation on the other side of the country. She is torn because this is an amazing opportunity, but she would be leaving her family and boyfriend of two years behind. Which stage of psychosocial development would Erikson say this young woman is experiencing? 

Possible Answers:

Identity vs. role confusion 

Initiative vs. guilt 

Intimacy vs. isolation 

Trust vs. mistrust 

Integrity vs. despair 

Correct answer:

Intimacy vs. isolation 

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the young adulthood stage (from the early twenties to the early forties), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with intimacy versus isolation. He hypothesized that individuals at this stage struggle with forming close relationships in the hope to achieve intimate love. He theorized that if this is not accomplished, then the individual might feel socially isolated. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. integrity versus despair or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect. The young woman in the question falls firmly within this range.

Example Question #1 : Options

A 23-year-old female is contemplating taking a job after college graduation on the other side of the country. She is torn because this is an amazing opportunity, but she would be leaving her family and boyfriend of two years behind. Which stage of psychosocial development would Erikson say this young woman is experiencing? 

Possible Answers:

Integrity vs. despair 

Trust vs. mistrust 

Intimacy vs. isolation 

Initiative vs. guilt 

Identity vs. role confusion 

Correct answer:

Intimacy vs. isolation 

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the young adulthood stage (from the early twenties to the early forties), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with intimacy versus isolation. He hypothesized that individuals at this stage struggle with forming close relationships in the hope to achieve intimate love. He theorized that if this is not accomplished, then the individual might feel socially isolated. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. integrity versus despair or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect. The young woman in the question falls firmly within this range.

Example Question #1 : Options

Cody is a starting shortstop for his minor league baseball team and leads his league in home runs and RBIs. Cody’s teammates overheard him telling his girlfriend that he does not truly love playing the sport; he only plays for the money that he earns and for the approval of his strict, critical father. Which of the following terms best describes what Cody is experiencing?

Possible Answers:

Intrinsic motivation

Negative reinforcement

Extrinsic motivation

Positive punishment

None of these

Correct answer:

Extrinsic motivation

Explanation:

Although Cody is a very talented and skilled baseball player, he does not play baseball because he truly loves playing baseball—he plays to make money and to gain the approval of his father. Cody is not motivated to play baseball for the mere sake of playing baseball, he is experiencing extrinsic motivation—the desire to perform and behave in certain ways to obtain external rewards or avoid a threatened punishment.

Example Question #1 : Sport Psychology

Cody is a starting shortstop for his minor league baseball team and leads his league in home runs and RBIs. Cody’s teammates overheard him telling his girlfriend that he does not truly love playing the sport; he only plays for the money that he earns and for the approval of his strict, critical father. Which of the following terms best describes what Cody is experiencing?

Possible Answers:

Positive punishment

Intrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation

Negative reinforcement

None of these

Correct answer:

Extrinsic motivation

Explanation:

Although Cody is a very talented and skilled baseball player, he does not play baseball because he truly loves playing baseball—he plays to make money and to gain the approval of his father. Cody is not motivated to play baseball for the mere sake of playing baseball, he is experiencing extrinsic motivation—the desire to perform and behave in certain ways to obtain external rewards or avoid a threatened punishment.

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