High School Biology : Cell Division

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Understanding Oogenesis

Which of the following choices correctly lists the order of development of the listed cell types of oogenesis in humans?

Primary oocyte

Secondary oocyte

Oogonium 

Ovum

Possible Answers:

Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum

Primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, oogonium, and ovum

Oogonium, secondary oocyte, primary oocyte, and ovum

Ovum, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and oogonium

Secondary oocyte, primary oocyte, oogonium, and ovum

Correct answer:

Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum

Explanation:

Oogonia are the primordial oocytes formed inside females either during or shortly after birth. At this time, the formation of primary oocytes occurs during dictyate, which lasts until the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) just before the onset of puberty. After menarche, a few of these cells will further develop each period into secondary oocytes, which are halted in metaphase II until fertilization. At the end of meiosis II, both polar bodies created to discard extra haploid sets of chromosomes disintegrate, leaving behind the oocyte which can then mature into an ovum. Thus, the correct order is the following order: oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum.

Example Question #211 : Cell Biology

What is the female gamete called?

Possible Answers:

Zygote

Ovary

Ovum

Uterus

Sperm

Correct answer:

Ovum

Explanation:

The female gamete is called the ovum (ova, plural). A zygote is the cell that results from fertilization occurs between two gametes. An ovary is the female reproductive organ that produces ova. Sperm is the male gamete. The uterus is the organ where the fetus develops.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Oogenesis

Each ovum is __________, containing __________, set(s) of chromosomes.

Possible Answers:

haploid . . . one

haploid . . . two

polyploid . . . four

diploid . . . one

diploid . . . two

Correct answer:

haploid . . . one

Explanation:

After completing meiosis II, ova are haploid cells containing one chromosome. Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes (n) as a diploid cell. Haploid cells like ova and sperm will merge during fertilization and form a diploid cell with two complete sets of chromosomes (2n).

Example Question #1 : Understanding Oogenesis

The release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary is known as __________.

Possible Answers:

menstruation

gametogenesis

oogenesis

ovulation

meiosis

Correct answer:

ovulation

Explanation:

The release of the secondary oocyte from the ovaries is ovulation. This occurs after the follicles surrounding the oocyte mature and rupture, releasing the cell to be available for fertilization. Menstruation occurs after ovulation - if the ovum fails to be fertilized, the uterus will shed its lining. Oogenesis, the creation of an ovum, is the female form of gametogenesis (creation of a gamete). Meiosis is the process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes is halved.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Oogenesis

Prior to the onset of menstruation, the development of primary oocytes is paused in what phase of meiosis?

Possible Answers:

Prophase II

Anaphase I

Prophase I

Metaphase II

Metaphase I

Correct answer:

Prophase I

Explanation:

Primary oocytes enter meiosis I and replicate their genomes, but they do not make their first meiotic division. They remain in prophase I until a female begins her first menstrual cycle. Then, each month, one primary oocyte resumes the process of meiotic division.

Example Question #61 : Cell Division

After a follicle matures and a primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division, the primary oocyte becomes __________.

Possible Answers:

a secondary oocyte

a gamete

a fetus

an embryo

an ovary

Correct answer:

a secondary oocyte

Explanation:

A primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte when the follicle grows and matures and the primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division. Shortly after, the follicle will rupture and release the secondary oocyte to be fertilized. Later, after the oocyte develops into an ovum and is fertilized, it becomes a diploid zygote, which develops into an embryo through the process of mitosis. The ovary is the reproductive organ where the ova are produced, and a gamete is the haploid cell (ovum or sperm) that is fertilized and forms a zygote.

Example Question #11 : Understanding Oogenesis

Fraternal twins or triplets may be born as a result of __________.

Possible Answers:

ovulating before the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

two or more sperm fertilizing a single ovum

an oocyte entering metaphase before fertilization

more than one follicle maturing in a single menstrual cycle

failure of the oocyte to complete meiosis

Correct answer:

more than one follicle maturing in a single menstrual cycle

Explanation:

During the menstrual cycle, typically only one follicle matures and is fertilized. The follicles that do not mature are called polar bodies and degenerate. However, sometimes multiple follicles remain and are available to be fertilized, resulting in genetically distinct embryos, known as fraternal twins.  

Example Question #11 : Understanding Oogenesis

After a primary oocyte divides meiotically, three haploid cells are produced. What is the term for the two smaller cells that typically disintegrate and are not fertilized?

Possible Answers:

Embryos

Fallopian tubes

Diploids

Polar bodies

Zygotes

Correct answer:

Polar bodies

Explanation:

Typically, each menstrual cycle produces three primary oocytes. Two of these primary oocytes are inevitably smaller than the third and usually disintegrate before maturation and fertilization. These two cells are known as polar bodies. Usually, meiosis results in four daughter cells that are all haploid. However, after meiosis I of oogenesis, there are two daughter cells, one primary oocyte, and a polar body. After meiosis II, the primary oocyte divides into a secondary oocyte and another polar body. However, the polar body that was a result of the first meiotic division usually does not complete meiosis, and thus does not divide again.

Example Question #12 : Understanding Oogenesis

What must occur for a secondary oocyte to complete meiosis II?

Possible Answers:

Implantation

Degeneration

Fertilization

Menstruation

Uterine contractions

Correct answer:

Fertilization

Explanation:

The secondary oocyte completes meiosis II only when fertilized by a spermatozoan. After fertilization is initiated, the secondary oocyte begins its second meiotic division, resulting in the formation of a mature ovum and another polar body. At this point, the ovum is ready to fuse with the spermatozoan.

Example Question #61 : Cell Division

Where does fertilization of the ovum typically occur?

Possible Answers:

Fallopian tube

Uterus

Cervix

Ovary

Follicle

Correct answer:

Fallopian tube

Explanation:

Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube. After fertilization, the diploid zygote will begin the process of implantation into the uterus, where it undergoes mitotic divisions. The resulting multicellular organism is called the embryo, which further develops in the uterus into a fetus.

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