High School Biology : Cell Division

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #12 : Understanding Stages Of Mitosis

What term refers to the cell splitting into two daughter cells?

Possible Answers:

Telophase

Anaphase

Interphase

Fission

Cytokinesis

Correct answer:

Cytokinesis

Explanation:

Cytokinesis is the division of the cell into two respective daughter cells. Cytokinesis can start as early as anaphase and moves through with telophase. The most important thing in this part of the process is to make sure that there is one nucleus in each new cell being formed. A protein filament ring, called the contractile ring, causes the middle of the cell to shrink and pinch off to form the two separate daughter cells.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Stages Of Mitosis

What are two major events that occur in prometaphase? 

Possible Answers:

The nuclear envelope breaks apart, the mitotic spindle reaches the chromosomes.

The spindle is only beginning to form and the chromosomes are lined up on the metaphase plate.

The nuclear envelope is still intact and the chromosomes become condensed.

Chromosomes become condensed and the nuclear envelope breaks down.

Correct answer:

The nuclear envelope breaks apart, the mitotic spindle reaches the chromosomes.

Explanation:

During premetaphase the nuclear envelop has broken down and this allows the spindle, or the microtubules, begin to attach to the chromosomes at the kinetochore. The microtubules begin to put force on the chromosomes to begin moving them to the middle of the cell.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Stages Of Mitosis

What is interphase?

Possible Answers:

The phase when the actual cell division occurs. 

The phase when the cell begins preparations for mitosis.

The cell arrest phase.

It is the first phase of mitosis.

None of these.

Correct answer:

The phase when the cell begins preparations for mitosis.

Explanation:

It is important to remember that interphase is not actually a part of mitosis, but rather is the preparation phase, setting the stage for mitosis to occur. Cells spend most of their time in this phase. During interphase the cells make copies of its structures and duplicates its chromosomes during DNA synthesis. The G1, S phase, and G2 phase all make up interphase, (if you remember from the previous question). 

Example Question #181 : Cell Biology

Please name the first stage of mitosis and two things that occurs during this phase. 

Possible Answers:

Metaphase; the spindle is fully formed.

Telophase; chromosomes line up on the spindle.

Metaphase; the nuclear envelope breaks down.

Prophase; the mitotic spindle forms and chromosomes become more pronounced.

Prophase; chromosomes line up on the spindle.

Correct answer:

Prophase; the mitotic spindle forms and chromosomes become more pronounced.

Explanation:

Prophase is the first stage of mitosis. The cell cytoplasm and nucleus undergo several changes. At this point the mitotic spindle is forming but the nucleus is still intact. In this phase the chromosomes become tightly packed and the nucleoli disappear. Each chromosome is paired with its sister chromatid joined in the middle at the centromere. 

Prophase

Example Question #22 : Understanding Stages Of Mitosis

Metaphase

What phase is the cell above currently in? How can you tell?

Possible Answers:

Metaphase; you can tell because the chromosomes are neatly lined up in the center of the cell on the mitotic spindle.

Telophase; you can tell because there is no nuclear envelope anymore.

Prophase; you can tell because of the cell's shape.

Prometaphase; you can tell because there is no nuclear envelope anymore.

Anaphase; you can tell because the chromosomes are neatly lined up in the center of the cell on the mitotic spindle.

Correct answer:

Metaphase; you can tell because the chromosomes are neatly lined up in the center of the cell on the mitotic spindle.

Explanation:

The condensed chromosomes are aligned on the metaphase plate (an imaginary line in the middle of the cell). They align this way because of the microtubules that are pulling them to the opposite sides. 

Example Question #22 : Understanding Stages Of Mitosis

Premetaphase

In what stage of mitosis is the cell shown in?

Possible Answers:

Telophase

Anophase

Prometaphase

Prophase

Metaphase

Correct answer:

Prometaphase

Explanation:

The cell in the picture about is in the prometphase stage. Key indicators of this phase are the breakdown of the nuclear envelope around the genetic material and the spindle beginning to interact with the chromosomes.

Example Question #23 : Understanding Stages Of Mitosis

Prophase

In what phase of mitosis is the cell shown?

Possible Answers:

Metaphase

Anaphase

Prophase

Cytokinesis

Telophase

Correct answer:

Prophase

Explanation:

The cell pictured above is in prophase. Key indicators that the cell is in this stage are that the nuclear envelope is still intact and chromosomes have become condensed and paired up with sister chromatids.

Example Question #23 : Cell Division

 

What is the difference in chromosome number, in each daughter cell, between mitosis and meiosis?

Possible Answers:

Both mitosis and meiosis end with two diploid cells.

Both mitosis and meiosis process end with two haploid cells.

Mitosis ends in a diploid cell and meiosis ends in a haploid cell.

Meiosis ends in a dipliod cell and mitosis ends with a haploid cell.

Mitosis ends with two diploid cells and meiosis ends with 4 haploid cells.

Correct answer:

Mitosis ends with two diploid cells and meiosis ends with 4 haploid cells.

Explanation:

Mitosis has only one round of chromosome separation and creates all cells, other than sex cells. For example skin cells. This process ends with two diploid cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell.

Meiosis is the process that generates the cells that occur in sexual reproduction cells, otherwise known as gametes. This process, since it has two rounds of chromosome separation, will end with 4 haploid cells, or half the genetic information of the parent cell.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Structures Of Mitosis

Mitosis has four phases. List the phases in the correct order.

Possible Answers:

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase

Prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase

Metaphase, anaphase, telophase, prophase

Telophase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase

Correct answer:

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Explanation:

The correct order to the phases is: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

During prophase, the nuclear membrane dissolves and the DNA condenses into chromosomes. The chromosomes travel to the center of the cell during metaphase and align, allowing spindle fibers to bind to the center of each chromosome. The spindle fibers contract during anaphase, separating the sister chromatids and pulling them to opposite poles of the cell. During telophase, the nuclear membrane begins to re-form and a ring of contractile filaments begins to pinch the cytoplasm to create two separate daughter cells (this is known as the cleavage furrow). Following telophase, the daughter cells completely separate; the division of the cytoplasm is called cytokinesis and is often considered a separate event from mitosis.

Example Question #25 : Cell Division

Starting from a single parent cell, what are the results upon completion of one round of mitosis?

Possible Answers:

Two nonidentical diploid cells 

Four idendical diploid cells

Four nonidentical haploid cells

Two identical diploid cells

Four nonidentical diploid cells

Correct answer:

Two identical diploid cells

Explanation:

The process of mitosis involves separating the already duplicated chromosomes (sister chromatids). The parent cell doubled its DNA during the S phase of interphase so that it now has four copies of each gene (two copies of each allele). In humans this is equivalent to two copies of all 23 chromosomes from the mother, and two copies of all 23 chromosomes from the father, sometimes called 2x2n or 4n depending on the textbook.

During division, each chromosome is divided into its component chromatids. The result is a single copy of each chromosome (two copies of each gene, one from the mother and one from the father) in each daughter cell. Because there are two copies of each gene in the daughter cells, they are considered diploid. Sister chromatids are identical genetic copies; separating sister chromatids will result in identical daughter cells.

In contrast, the final product of meiosis is four nonidentical haploid cells. Each daughter cell at the end of meiosis carries only one copy of each gene (haploid) and is nonidentical to the other three daughter cells due to the phenomenon of independent assortment.

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