High School Biology : Cell Division

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #241 : Cell Biology

What is the correct order of the phases of the cell cycle?

Possible Answers:

G1, G2, S, M

G1, M, S, G2

G1, G2, M, S

G1, S, G2, M

Correct answer:

G1, S, G2, M

Explanation:

During the G1 phase the cell grows and also carries out normal cellular functions. In the synthesis (S) phase the DNA is replicated resulting in two copies of each of the chromosomes. Upon entering the G2 phase the cell continue to grow and assess whether the DNA has been properly replicated to prepare for the mitosis (M) phase.

Mitosis, the next stage of the cell cycle, has four sequential steps: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In prophase, each chromosome becomes condensed and more visible, and there is the breakdown of the nuclear membrane and appearance of spindle fibers. In the next phase, metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the metaphasic plate. The spindle fibers are completely formed and are attached to each sister chromatid of the chromosomes. Next, during anaphase, the centromeres holding the sister chromatids together are divided and the sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers to opposite poles of the diving cell. During the last phase of mitosis, telophase, the two sets of chromosomes reach the end of the opposing poles of the cell. This process is followed by the reformation of the nuclear envelope, uncoiling of the DNA, and disappearance of the spindle fibers. After the M phase is the separation of the cytoplasm known as cytokinesis, which results in two distinct daughter cells. These daughter cells enter into the G1 phase to begin the cell cycle again.

Example Question #91 : Cell Division

DNA replication takes place during which phase of the cell cycle?

Possible Answers:

G2 phase

M phase

C phase

S phase

Correct answer:

S phase

Explanation:

During the G1 phase the cell grows and also carries out normal cellular functions. In the synthesis (S) phase the DNA is replicated resulting in two copies of each of the chromosomes. Upon entering the G2 phase the cell continue to grow and assess whether the DNA has been properly replicated to prepare for the mitosis (M) phase.

Mitosis, the next cycle of the cell cycle, has four sequential stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In prophase, each chromosome becomes condensed and more visible, and there is the breakdown of the nuclear membrane and appearance of spindle fibers. In the next phase, metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the metaphasic plate. The spindle fibers are completely formed and are attached to each sister chromatid of the chromosomes. Next, during anaphase, the centromeres holding the sister chromatids together are divided and the sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers to opposite poles of the diving cell. During the last phase of mitosis, telophase, the two sets of chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell. This is followed by the reformation of the nuclear envelope, uncoiling of the DNA, and disappearance of the spindle fibers. After the M phase is the separation of the cytoplasm known as cytokinesis, which results in two distinct daughter cells.

Example Question #11 : The Cell Cycle

Which phases of the cell cycle contain checkpoints to regulate cell maturity and division?

Possible Answers:

G1, G2, M

S, G2, M

G1, G0, S

G1, S, M

Correct answer:

G1, G2, M

Explanation:

There are various checkpoints throughout the cell cycle that regulate whether a cell will continue to divide. During the G1 phase there is a chemical checkpoint that determines whether a cell has the proper nutrients and growth factors to continue through the cell cycle, or whether it will enter the resting phase also known as the G0 phase. After DNA replication in the S (synthesis) phase, the cell enters the second growth phase, G2. In G2 there is the second checkpoint that will determine if the cell DNA replication was carried out successfully to further the division of the cell. If DNA replication is carried out properly the cell will enter the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. Here, the cell will go through a series of phases that ultimately result in the separation of chromosomes. The success of mitosis is assessed at another checkpoint during metaphase (a sub-phase of the M phase). If everything is carried out properly, the cell will then undergo cytokinesis and result in two daughter cells. These will then enter the G1 phase to begin the cell cycle again.

Example Question #11 : Understanding Stages Of The Cell Cycle

The success of DNA replication is assessed during which phase of the cell cycle?

Possible Answers:

S

G1

G2

M

Correct answer:

G2

Explanation:

There are various checkpoints throughout the cell cycle that regulate whether a cell will continue to divide. During the G1 phase there is a chemical checkpoint that determines whether a cell has the proper nutrients and growth factors to continue through the cell cycle, or whether it will enter the resting phase also known as the G0 phase. After DNA replication in the S (synthesis) phase, the cell enters the second growth phase, G2. In G2 there is the second checkpoint that will determine if the cell DNA replication was carried out successfully to further the division of the cell. If DNA replication is carried out properly, the cell will enter the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. Here, the cell will go through a series of phases that ultimately result in the separation of chromosomes. The success of mitosis is assessed at another checkpoint during metaphase (a subdivision of the M phase). If everything is carried out properly, the cell will then undergo cytokinesis and resulting in two daughter cells.

Example Question #251 : Cell Biology

Division of the cytoplasm occurs during which phase of the cell cycle?

Possible Answers:

Cytokinesis

M phase

Prophase

Telophase

Correct answer:

Cytokinesis

Explanation:

Cytokinesis is the period of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm of the parent cell is divided and the parent cell completes division, resulting in two daughter cells.

During the G1 phase the cell grows and also carries out normal cellular functions. In the synthesis (S) phase the DNA is replicated, resulting in two copies of each of the chromosomes. Upon entering the G2 phase the cell continue to grow and assess whether the DNA has been properly replicated to prepare for the mitosis (M) phase.

Mitosis, the next stage of the cell cycle, has four sequential stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Cytokinesis begins during telophase and extends into the beginning of G1.

Example Question #11 : The Cell Cycle

Which of the following events is not characteristic of prophase of mitosis?

Possible Answers:

Appearance of spindle fibers

DNA is condensed into chromosomes

DNA replication

Breakdown of nuclear envelope

Correct answer:

DNA replication

Explanation:

Replication of the DNA occurs during the S phase of interphase.

Interphase is essentially the first and longest phase of the cell cycle characterized by three distinct phases: growth phase 1 (G1), synthesis (S) phase, and srowth phase 2 (G2). During the G1 phase the cell grows and also carries out normal cellular functions. In the synthesis (S) phase the DNA is replicated, resulting in two copies of each of the chromosomes. Upon entering the G2 phase the cell continue to grow and assess whether the DNA has been properly replicated to prepare for the mitosis (M) phase.

Mitosis, the next stage of the cell cycle, has four sequential stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In prophase, each chromosome becomes condensed and more visible, and there is the breakdown of the nuclear membrane and appearance of spindle fibers. In the next phase, metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the metaphasic plate. The spindle fibers are completely formed and are attached to each sister chromatid of the chromosomes. Next, during anaphase, the centromeres holding the sister chromatids together are divided and the sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers to opposite poles of the diving cell. During the last phase of mitosis, telophase, the two sets of chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell. This is followed by the reformation of the nuclear envelope, uncoiling of the DNA, and disappearance of the spindle fibers. After the M phase is the separation of the cytoplasm, known as cytokinesis, which results in two distinct daughter cells.

Example Question #91 : Cell Division

In which phase of mitosis does the cell spend the most time?

Possible Answers:

Telophase

Prophase

Interphase

Anaphase

Metaphase

Correct answer:

Interphase

Explanation:

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase are the steps in mitosis (M phase). M phase takes relatively less time than interphase, where the cell has to replicate all its DNA and organelles in order to be ready for mitosis or meiosis. Hence, cells spend most of their time in interphase, preparing for mitosis.

Example Question #92 : Cell Division

In what stage of the cell cycle does the cell engage in chemical repair of damaged duplicated chromosomes? 

Possible Answers:

G2

S

G1

G0

Cytokinesis

Correct answer:

G2

Explanation:

The Gphase or pre-mitotic phase is the phase of the cell cycle immediately after the S phase, where replication of a cell's contents takes place. During this phase, the cell performs a check for damaged or destroyed parts of the chromosome, and performs necessary repairs or causes the cell to self-destruct (apoptosis).

Example Question #12 : Understanding Stages Of The Cell Cycle

Approximately how fast does DNA synthesis occur during the S phase of the cell cycle, where DNA replication takes place?

Possible Answers:

 nucleotides/second

 nucleotides/second

 nucleotides/second

 nucleotides/second

 nucleotides/second

Correct answer:

 nucleotides/second

Explanation:

In addition to occurring at a blistering  nucleotides/second, the process of DNA replication must be precise: less than  failed replications can terminate the daughter cells.

Example Question #91 : Cell Division

DNA replication occurs during which of the following phases of the cell cycle?

Possible Answers:

M phase

S phase

Gphase

G0

Correct answer:

S phase

Explanation:

DNA is synthesized in the S phase only. The G phases are stages of cellular growth while the M phase consists of mitotic cellular division.

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