AP Human Geography : Theories of Population Growth & Decline

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Theories Of Population Growth & Decline

The Demographic Transition Model suggests that various regions experience a movement from __________ to __________.

Possible Answers:

low birth rates and high death rates . . . high birth rates and low death rates

high birth rates and low death rates . . . low birth rates and high death rates

high birth rates and high death rates . . . low birth rates and low death rates

low birth rates and low death rates . . . high birth rates and high death rates

high birth rates and high death rates; high birth rates and low death rates

Correct answer:

high birth rates and high death rates . . . low birth rates and low death rates

Explanation:

The Demographic Transition Model can be divided into pre-industrial, transitional, and industrial segments. A pre-industrial country (like Somalia, for example) will have high birth rates and high death rates. This is the starting place for all of humanity—many people being born and many people quickly dying. The next phase is transitional; in this phase, first the death rate starts dropping, and then shortly thereafter, the birth rate begins to drop too. The final phase is called "industrial." When a country is well-developed and women are relatively liberated, then birth rates and death rates remain fairly stable and much, much lower than in a pre-industrial society.

Example Question #51 : Population & Migration

An Essay on the Principle of Population was written by __________.

Possible Answers:

Adam Smith

David Ricardo

René Descartes

Thomas Malthus

Karl Marx

Correct answer:

Thomas Malthus

Explanation:

An Essay on the Principle of Population, published at the end of the eighteenth century, was written by Thomas Malthus. In this essay, Malthus argues that the rate of food production grows arithmetically, whereas population grows exponentially. Malthus argued that this would lead to a situation where population outstrips food production, leading to widespread famine and starvation. His writings are extremely influential even to this day; however, many geographers dispute his conclusions and argue that technology augments food production, allowing it to keep up with population growth. It remains to be seen whether Malthus’ predictions will come true in the twenty-first century or beyond.

Example Question #52 : Ap Human Geography

The “demographic accounting equation” is used to __________.

Possible Answers:

None of these answers are correct

incorporate Crude Birth Rates and Crude Death Rates into the “natural increase rate”

predict future population growth

identify the reasons behind population growth

determine the rate of population growth throughout history

Correct answer:

predict future population growth

Explanation:

The “demographic accounting equation” is used to predict future population growth for a region or country. It is determined first by calculating the “natural increase rate,” which is the number of births minus the number of deaths. Then by adding the “natural increase rate” to the “net migration number.” The “net migration number” is the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants in a given time period.

Example Question #61 : Ap Human Geography

In countries like the United States, which experience relatively low levels of natural increase rate, population growth is primarily driven by __________.

Possible Answers:

None of these answers are correct; the population of the United States is declining

asylum seekers

emigration

immigration

refugees

Correct answer:

immigration

Explanation:

In highly developed countries like the United States the natural increase rate is generally very low, it might even be negative. But, the natural increase rate only reflects the changes in population caused by births and deaths; it does not consider immigration and emigration. Much of the population growth in the United States is driven by immigration and the fact that newly arrived immigrants are much more likely to have large families.

Example Question #61 : Population & Migration

Which of these countries is currently undergoing stage three of the demographic transition process?

Possible Answers:

Morocco

Denmark

Sweden

South Sudan

Nigeria

Correct answer:

Morocco

Explanation:

In stage three of the demographic transition model a country’s death rate has already fallen and it’s birth rate is in the process of falling as well. The death rate in Morocco has fallen dramatically in the half-century since independence, but the birth rate has only recently begun to fall to match this decline. Nigeria and South Sudan are both still in stage two of the demographic transition process (falling death rates, steady birth rates); Sweden and Denmark are both in stage four of the demographic transition process (low death rates, low birth rates).

Example Question #61 : Population & Migration

Which of these countries is currently undergoing stage four of the demographic transition model?

Possible Answers:

Japan

Brazil

China

Kenya

Colombia

Correct answer:

Japan

Explanation:

All of these countries are in either stage two or stage three (the transitional stages) of the demographic transition model, except Japan, which is in stage four. Stage four is generally considered the final stage of the demographic transition model. In stage four, the birth rates and the death rates are both low and generally steady. In Japan, the death rate is very low and the birth rate is very low, leading to a steady population and perhaps even a slight population decline.

Example Question #11 : Population Growth & Decline

The natural increase rate is determined by __________.

Possible Answers:

adding the number of births and immigrants together and then subtracting the number of deaths and emigrants in a given region

subtracting the number of births from the number of deaths in a given region

subtracting the number of emigrants from the number of immigrants in a given region

subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births in a given region

adding the number of births and immigrants together in a given region

Correct answer:

subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births in a given region

Explanation:

The natural increase rate does not consider immigration or emigration. It is determined by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births in a given region. So, if there are ten thousand deaths and thirteen thousand births in a given region, in a given time period, the natural increase rate is three thousand.

Example Question #62 : Ap Human Geography

When discussing demographic statistics, the “doubling time” refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

the number of children born to the average woman in a region over the course of her lifetime

the amount of time it takes for the total fertility rate of a region to double

the amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double

the number of children who died before their first birthday per thousand births in a region

the amount of time that it takes for declining birth rates to catch up to declining death rates in a region

Correct answer:

the amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double

Explanation:

The “doubling time” refers to the amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double. The number is based on the annual increase in population as a percentage of the original population. An annual increase of one percent of the population will cause the population to have a “doubling time” of seventy years. An annual increase of four percent of the population will lead to a “doubling time” of sixteen years. This might seem incredibly fast, and indeed it is. The reason for this is that population compounds as it grows, much like compound interest.

Example Question #61 : Ap Human Geography

Which of the following does not affect the “natural increase rate” of a country?

Possible Answers:

Gender equality

Access to education

Cultural customs

Government policies

All of the other answers affect the “natural increase rate” of a country.

Correct answer:

All of the other answers affect the “natural increase rate” of a country.

Explanation:

All of these answer choices affect the “natural increase rate” of a country. The following are general rules, of which there are some exceptions: as access to education becomes more universal the “natural increase rate” will decline; government policies that institute population control programs will cause the “natural increase rate” to decline; the more empowered women are in a society, and the more gender equality there is, the lower the “natural increase rate.” Finally, cultural customs—like emphasizing the importance of motherhood—can have significant impacts on the “natural increase rate.”

Example Question #12 : Theories Of Population Growth & Decline

The study of human population is called __________.

Possible Answers:

geology

geography

sociology

demography

anthropology

Correct answer:

demography

Explanation:

Demography is the study of human population. Specifically, demography generally involves the study of statistics concerning things like birth and death rates, fertility and public health, income, ethnicity, and outbreaks of disease.

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