AP Biology : Understanding Amino Acids

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #31 : Proteins

Point mutations can have different effects on translation. When a point mutation changes a codon, but it does not change which amino acid is inserted into a protein, it is referred to as a __________ mutation.

Possible Answers:

virulent

missense

silent

neutral

nonsense

Correct answer:

silent

Explanation:

The effects of point mutations vary by type. For example, leucine has 6 different codons. If the codon UUA is changed to UUG, the resulting amino acid inserted into the protein is not changed; it is still leucine. This is referred to as a silent mutation. 

Example Question #32 : Proteins

There are 3 types of RNA. Which type is is responsible for binding to amino acids and bringing them to the ribosome during translation?

Possible Answers:

tRNA

rRNA

siRNA

miRNA

mRNA

Correct answer:

tRNA

Explanation:

tRNA, or transfer RNA, is responsible for binding amino acids and delivering them to the ribosome during translation. tRNA binds amino acids with its anticodon. The anticodon is a sequence of 3 nucleotides that are complimentary to the codon of a specific amino acid. Anticodons can only bind to codons that are complementary in sequence; this ensures that the correct amino acids are chosen.

Example Question #11 : Understanding Amino Acids

What type of chemical bonds are involved when codons bond to anticodons in translation?

Possible Answers:

Amide linkages

Phosphodiester bonds

Ionic bonds

Disulfide bonds

Hydrogen bonds

Correct answer:

Hydrogen bonds

Explanation:

The bonding of a codon to its anticodon is accomplished through the use of hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds; therefore, amino acids are easily dissociated from their corresponding transfer RNA once delivered to the ribosome for translation. Hydrogen bonds are also responsible for connecting the bases of complementary strands of DNA which results in its double helix.

Example Question #12 : Understanding Amino Acids

Proteins are polymers of __________.

Possible Answers:

fatty acids

amino acids

glucose

nucleotides

Correct answer:

amino acids

Explanation:

Proteins are polymers of amino acids, which have an amino group, carboxyl group, and a side chain known as an R-group. Nucleotides make up DNA and RNA. Glucose is a carbohydrate monomer and make up starches, cellulose, and glycogen. Fatty acids are components of lipids.

Example Question #13 : Understanding Amino Acids

What is the one element that proteins have that carbohydrates and lipids do not have?

Possible Answers:

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Hydrogen

Carbon

Correct answer:

Nitrogen

Explanation:

Amino acids, which make up proteins, have an amino group, which contains nitrogen. Carbohydrates and lipids contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but they do not contain nitrogen.

Example Question #14 : Understanding Amino Acids

Which of the following is not one of the four basic components of an amino acid?

Possible Answers:

Side chain

Nitrogenous base

Hydrogen atom

Basic amino group

Acidic carboxyl group

Correct answer:

Nitrogenous base

Explanation:

A nitrogenous base is a part of the DNA/RNA structure. They include adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and/or uracil. All other answer choices are parts of amino acids.

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