AP Art History : Identifying artists, works, or schools of nineteenth-century 2D art

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Art History

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Example Questions

Example Question #61 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

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Figure 1

 

 688px-gustave_courbet_010

Figure 2

These pictures are emblematic of the painting style known as __________

Possible Answers:

realism.

romanticism.

impressionism.

classicism.

Correct answer:

realism.

Explanation:

Gustave Courbet was the figure in developing realism as a specific artistic genre, which sought clear depictions of everyday life in an uncompromising manner. Courbet's The Desperate Man makes the viewer confront the madness in the eyes of the painter himself, while The Meeting shows Courbet venturing to find his art dealer in the South of France. Both are executed with fastidious lines and clear colors that capture the image portrayed exactly.

Example Question #62 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

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Figure 3

 

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Figure 4

These two paintings are representative of the artistic style of __________

Possible Answers:

Cubism.

Abstract Expressionism.

Impressionism.

Surrealism.

Correct answer:

Impressionism.

Explanation:

These paintings are paragons of Impressonism done by two of its foremost practitioners. Figure 1 is one of Claude Monet's studies of Rouen Cathedral, from 1888, while Figure 2 is one of Paul Cezanne's still lifes from 1899. Impressionism sought to depict emotional realism and perceptual limitations in its works by creating less than perfect representations of images with obvious brushstrokes, and by focusing on more mundane, everyday subjects.

Example Question #63 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

The artist who created a scandal with his 1863 paint Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass) was __________.

Possible Answers:

Édouard Manet

Jacques-Louis David

Alexandre Cabanel

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Correct answer:

Édouard Manet

Explanation:

Édouard Manet's massive painting of a group of people having a luncheon picnic, which included a nude woman in the foreground, caused a massive scandal when it was presented to the 1863 Salon. The thematic content of the painting, which was both an everyday scene and featured a luxuriating nude, was only part of the issue. Manet's style differed greatly from the academic mastery of the previous generation of French painters, such as David, Cabanel, and Ingres, and greatly presaged Impressionism.

Example Question #64 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

The Impressionists most clearly departed from earlier French painting by __________.

Possible Answers:

focusing on everyday events and commonplace scenes

painting images from classical antiquity

crafting large images of historical stories

focusing on portraiture to the exclusion of all other genres

Correct answer:

focusing on everyday events and commonplace scenes

Explanation:

The Impressionists are most famous for their particular painting style, which used obvious brushwork to make a less-than-realistic depiction of a scene in order to portray movement and emotion. At the time of their emergence, the Impressionists were shocking to the academic French art world in their persistent use of everyday scenes and common items. Impressionists often showed people at cafés or in parks, and even their landscapes were usually quite small compared to previous images.

Example Question #71 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

Gustave Courbet's "A Burial at Ornans" was a departure from previous standards of French art for all of the following reasons EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

portraying a scene on a large, wall-sized canvas

the portrayal of a common burial in a small town

its sharp focus on realism by using actual townspeople as models

the inclusion of a dog in the foreground

Correct answer:

portraying a scene on a large, wall-sized canvas

Explanation:

In the first half of the nineteenth century, French art was dominated by an academic system that favored history scenes depicted on an epic scale on wall-sized canvases. Courbet's "A Burial at Ornans" flew in the face of these trends by presenting an ordinary burial, Courbet's uncle's funeral, in Courbet's hometown. To heighten the sense of realism, Courbet used actual townsfolk as his models and included a dog prominently in the foreground.

Example Question #72 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

The court painter for Napoleon Bonaparte, who captured his coronation as Emperor on a massive scene, was __________.

Possible Answers:

Hyacinthe Rigaud

Gustave Courbet

Maurice Quentin de la Tour

Jacques Louis David

Correct answer:

Jacques Louis David

Explanation:

Jacques-Louis David was a French painter trained before the French Revolution. He was a close friend of Revolutionaries, making his career uncertain through the 1790s. His fortunes changed, however, when he caught the attention of Napoleon Bonaparte due to his precise portraiture and ability to handle large-scale scenes. One of his most famous works, The Coronation of Napoleon, portrays the Emperor's ascension to the title, and depicts a number of luminaries of the time.

Example Question #73 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

The nineteenth-century American art movement whose works focused on natural landscapes, dramatic use of light, and a romantic perspective was __________.

Possible Answers:

the Hudson River School

Photorealism

Tonalism

Regionalism

Correct answer:

the Hudson River School

Explanation:

The Hudson River School was arguably the first well-known, distinctive American art movement, beginning in the 1820s and remaining influential through the post-Civil War Era. Thomas Cole was the progenitor of the style, as his trips through the Hudson River Valley encouraged him to paint sweeping landscapes in a realistic depiction of the sites. The Hudson River School's use of light and frequent inclusion of extreme weather showed their debt to the ideas and theories of romanticism.

Example Question #74 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

Which artistic movement took its name from a Claude Monet painting of the port of Le Havre, France?

Possible Answers:

Cubism

Fauvism

Impressionism

Symbolism

Correct answer:

Impressionism

Explanation:

Claude Monet was part of a group of artists, including Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Camille Pisarros, Paul Cézanne, that challenged the artistic conventions of the time with scenes of everyday life painted with vivid brushstrokes. At a gallery exhibition of 1874, Monet presented a scene of the harbor at Le Havre entitled Impression, Sunrise. Derisively, the critic Louis Leroy gave the entire group the name "the Impressionists" after viewing the exhibition, based on the title of Monet's painting.

Example Question #75 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

The nineteenth-century American painter who frequently titled paintings with the terms "Arrangement," "Symphony," and "Nocturne" was named __________.

Possible Answers:

James Abbott McNeill Whistler

Winslow Homer

Mary Cassatt

John Singer Sargent

Correct answer:

James Abbott McNeill Whistler

Explanation:

The American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler was famous for his advocating the so-called "art for art's sake" ethos. This meant that Whistler mostly abjured political or social themes, and often compared his work to musical compositions in terms of mood and tone. Whistler's famous portrait of his mother was actually officially entitled Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1.

Example Question #76 : Nineteenth Century 2 D Art

The Spanish painter who created a series of fourteen paintings at the end of his life known as "The Black Paintings" was ________.

Possible Answers:

El Greco

Francisco Goya

Diego Velazquez

Pablo Picasso

Correct answer:

Francisco Goya

Explanation:

Francisco Goya was a significant portrait painter at the end of the eighteenth century. For most of his life, Goya was best known as the court painter for the Spanish King Charles IV. After the Napoleonic Wars of the early nineteenth century, Goya made darker paintings reflecting the realities of the invasion. Starting in 1819, over his last years Goya's work became darker still, culminating in the so-called "Black Paintings," which were fourteen disturbing images that are united by a dark palette and proto-surrealist imagery.

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