SAT II World History : Colonialism

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Colonialism

The Monroe Doctrine intended to __________.

Possible Answers:

Annex the territory of Mexico to the United States

Map out the territory recently acquired in the Louisiana Purchase 

Demand reparations from the British for the affronts of impressment and embargo

Promote the notion of American rights to the entirety of the continent

Keep European countries out of Latin America 

Correct answer:

Keep European countries out of Latin America 

Explanation:

The Monroe Doctrine was issued by the United States’ President James Monroe in 1823. It was issued in response to the wave of South American independence movements that had swept the European powers out of almost all territory in the Western hemisphere. The Monroe Doctrine threatened that the United States would intervene on behalf of the Latin American republics if the European powers tried to recapture territory in the Western hemisphere. It is one of the most significant foreign policy tenets in United States history and remains influential to this day.

Example Question #4 : Global Developments

The Sepoy Mutiny occurred __________.

Possible Answers:

immediately after the Easter Rebellion 

after the assassination of Gandhi 

in the British Raj 

during the Great Partition 

in the Belgian colony of Congo 

Correct answer:

in the British Raj 

Explanation:

The Sepoy Mutiny (sometimes called the First War of Indian Independence or the Indian Rebellion of 1857) occurred in Northern India. Much of India at the time was under British control, and the government was generally referred to as the British Raj. It has become common policy to state that the rebellion began when Hindu and Muslim Sepoys (another word for soldiers) were told that the grease used in their rifles was from either pork or beef fat—pork would offend Islamic customs and beef would offend Hindu customs; however, the rebellion was really an outpouring of long-held frustrations and angers. It would eventually be brutally put down by the British and resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of Indian civilians.

Example Question #4 : Global Developments

Which of the following groups was interpreted by the British Empire to be at the top of the Northern Indian caste system?

Possible Answers:

Kshatriyas

Dalits

Vaishyas 

Shudras 

Brahmans

Correct answer:

Brahmans

Explanation:

The Indian caste system has existed for hundreds of years as a means of enforcing social stability and obedience; however, it has often been rather fluid, and rarely has it been uniformly enforced across the whole vast Indian subcontinent. Following the arrival of the British, however, the imperialist government needed a way to further entrench their system of power, so they sought to solidify and normalize the caste system. They placed Brahmans (priests and religious figures) at the top, followed by the Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), then Vaishyas (merchants), and finally Shudras (workers and peasants). Below the established caste system there existed, and indeed still exists, an “untouchable caste” of Dalits.

Example Question #1 : Colonialism

Social Darwinism was a factor in the growth of which of these empires?

Possible Answers:

Roman 

Carthaginian 

German

Spanish 

Greek 

Correct answer:

German

Explanation:

This question is primarily asking you to identify which of these empires rose to prominence in the second half of the nineteenth century, as this was the time period in which Social Darwinism became a factor in European Imperialism. Social Darwinism was a political manipulation of Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” biological theory and was used to “justify” conquering and ruling native people under the guise that they were better off being ruled by "fitter" human beings. The only one of these empires that was rising in the second half of the nineteenth century was the German empire. The Roman, Carthaginian, and Greek empires were all in their ascendency in the classical era, and the Spanish empire rose to prominence in the late-Medieval and early-Renaissance eras.

Example Question #1 : Colonialism

The Platt Amendment concerned the presence of the United States in __________.

Possible Answers:

Cuba

Bolivia 

Panama

Mexico 

Nicaragua

Correct answer:

Cuba

Explanation:

The Platt Amendment was issued following the Spanish-American War in 1901. It effectively gave the American government complete control (albeit temporarily) over the Cuban government and stipulated that American troops would remain in Cuba and that naval bases would be constructed.

Example Question #3 : 1500 C.E. To 1900 C.E.

The established elites of India were ________.

Possible Answers:

primarily reinforced by the arrival of the British Empire 

overthrown by the British and reinstated in positions of bureaucracy 

at the height of their power at the arrival of the British Empire

economically ruined by the arrival of the British Empire 

radically eliminated following the arrival of the British Empire

Correct answer:

primarily reinforced by the arrival of the British Empire 

Explanation:

Following the arrival of the British in the Indian subcontinent the established elites were generally reinforced in their legitimacy and control of the territory. The British arrived with only a couple of thousand men and were faced with the task of administering a population of tens, if not hundreds, of millions so they rather had little choice but to manipulate the existing forms of power. 

Example Question #1 : Colonialism

The Roosevelt Corollary was added to which longstanding American political belief?

Possible Answers:

Horatio Alger; Rags to Riches

Manifest Destiny

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

The Monroe Doctrine

The Wilmot Proviso

Correct answer:

The Monroe Doctrine

Explanation:

The Monroe Doctrine states that the United States will prevent any further European imperialism in the American hemisphere through diplomacy and military force if necessary. The Roosevelt Corollary, added to the Monroe Doctrine by Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, redefined exactly what was acceptable practice for the United States in the issue of imperialism. Roosevelt declared that the United States had the right to intervene in any kind of conflict, even in support of a European power, if the conflict is fomenting unrest and chaos in the Western hemisphere.

Example Question #1 : Colonialism

The Seven Years’ War is also called __________.

Possible Answers:

The Vietnam War

The Mexican-American War

The Spanish-American War

The French-Indian War

World War Two

Correct answer:

The French-Indian War

Explanation:

The Seven Years’ War was a global conflict fought between the two imperial powers of France and Britain. In the North American theatre the conflict has come to be called the French and Indian War. Many Native Americans fought on the side of Britain and the colonists against the French. The war resulted in victory for the British (including Britain taking control of the subcontinent of India), but led indirectly to the American Revolution.

Example Question #2 : Colonialism

The Berlin Conference (1884–1885) led to __________.

Possible Answers:

the separation of Germany into a capitalist west and a communist east

the end of World War One

the division of Africa by the European imperial powers

the loss of French territories in Europe and North America

a complete overhaul of the German political system

Correct answer:

the division of Africa by the European imperial powers

Explanation:

The Berlin Conference took place in 1884 and 1885 and coincided with Germany’s emergence as a prominent European and imperial power. At the Berlin Conference, the European imperial powers sought to divide the entire continent of Africa among themselves.

Example Question #1 : Colonialism

The Treaty of Nanking (1842) gave Britain political control over __________.

Possible Answers:

Singapore 

mainland China

North Korea 

Hong Kong

South Korea 

Correct answer:

Hong Kong

Explanation:

The Treaty of Nanking ended the First Opium War between Britain and China. The treaty was an unequal one, as it resulted in numerous concessions being offered by the Chinese and none being offered by the British. The treaty opened China up to European trade and gave the territory of Hong Kong over to British control.

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