SAT II Biology E : Systems Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II Biology E

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Example Questions

Example Question #121 : Sat Subject Test In Biology

Which of the following contribute to the upward movement of water through the xylem and throughout the plant's tissues?

I. Transpiration

II. Adhesion

III. Cohesion 

Possible Answers:

III only

I and III

I, II, and III

I only

I and II

Correct answer:

I, II, and III

Explanation:

All three given properties contribute to water's motion up the xylem of a plant, as transpiration brings up the water through evaporation due to heat and sunlight. However, as water is a polar molecule and has properties of cohesion and adhesion, molecules of water stick together and resist forces that would push the water out of the plant. This dynamic is referred to as the cohesion-tension theory.

Example Question #2 : Water And Nutrient Transport

In plant vascular tissue, ____________ is primarily used to transport water from the roots to the other organs of the plant, and ___________ is primarily used to transport nutrients such as sucrose to the organs of the plant.

Possible Answers:

dermal tissue . . . phloem

phloem . . . xylem

xylem . . . ground tissue

ground tissue . . . dermal tissue

xylem . . . phloem

Correct answer:

xylem . . . phloem

Explanation:

The correct answer is "xylem . . . phloem." Water and nutrients move from the roots through plant stem to the rest of the plant. Stems are made from three tissues: ground, dermal, and vascular. Vascular tissue is primarily divided into xylem, which primarily transports water, and phloem, which primarily transports sugars.

Example Question #1 : Glands

Which of the following glands is considered both part of the endocrine system and the nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Hypothalamus

Thalamus

Parathyroid gland

Thyroid gland

Pituitary gland

Correct answer:

Hypothalamus

Explanation:

The correct answer is hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is made of nervous tissue and is a part of all vertebrate brains, placing it as part of the nervous system. It also secretes a number of hormones that directly affect the pituitary gland, affecting a large number of bodily functions. In this way, the hypothalamus connects the nervous and endocrine systems and is part of both of them.

Example Question #1 : Stomach Cells And Enzymes

Lipase and trypsin are secreted by what digestive organ?

Possible Answers:

Stomach

Salivary glands

Large intestine

Small intestine

Pancreas

Correct answer:

Pancreas

Explanation:

Lipase and trypsin are enzymes secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum of the small intestine. These enzymes aid in the digestion of food. Salivary glands produce amylase in order to begin digestion in the mouth and the stomach aids in digestion primarily via stomach acid

Example Question #1 : Nervous System And Action Potentials

Which of the following neurotransmitters is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Glutamate

Serotonin

Dopamine

Acetylcholine

GABA

Correct answer:

GABA

Explanation:

The correct answer is GABA. GABA is the primary inhibitor used to lower the activity of cells in the human central nervous system. Glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine usually increase the activity of cells, and acetylcholine can increase or decrease cell activity depending on what cell receptor is interacting with the acetylcholine.

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