NCLEX-PN : Conditions and Treatments

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX-PN

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Example Questions

Example Question #31 : Tumors And Cancer

A patient is suffering from alopecia secondary to chemotherapy. Which of the following is the correct course of action for the nurse?

Possible Answers:

Use heat tools and products to maximize hair volume

Suggest dying the hair a lighter color

Change the bed sheets and towels frequently

Shampoo and brush frequently to reduce fall-out

Avoid discussing the topic with the patient

Correct answer:

Change the bed sheets and towels frequently

Explanation:

Hair loss can be alarming if large amounts of hair are seen in linens. Shampooing, brushing, heat tools, and hair dyes can increase fallout. The nurse should welcome healthy discussion about self esteem if appropriate. 

Example Question #32 : Tumors And Cancer

Which of the following would raise suspicion for thrombocytopenia?

Possible Answers:

The patient is excessively hungry

The patient appears to have a slightly pink tint in skin color

You see small bruises that appear under the skin

The patient is experiencing an increase in depressive symptoms

The patient's blood seems to clot abnormally fast in response to injury

Correct answer:

You see small bruises that appear under the skin

Explanation:

Thrombocytopenia occurs when the blood does not have a high enough platelet count. Slow clotting blood, increased bruising, or petechiae can all point to thrombocytopenia.  

Example Question #31 : Conditions And Treatments

Anemia, a side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents, involves which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells

The blood does not have enough platelets

The blood does not have enough antibodies

The blood does not have enough healthy white blood cells

The blood does not have enough plasma

Correct answer:

The blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells

Explanation:

Anemia is a condition caused the the deficiency of healthy red blood cells in the blood stream. This results in lack of sufficient oxygen delivery to tissues. 

Example Question #32 : Conditions And Treatments

Which of the following is a consequence of a carcinogen? 

Possible Answers:

Carcinogens alter a cell's DNA sequence

Carcinogens detoxify protective lysosomes

Carcinogens permeate the Golgi apparatus

Carcinogens bind to the cell's plasma membrane

Carcinogens increase the plasma membrane's permeability to insulin

Correct answer:

Carcinogens alter a cell's DNA sequence

Explanation:

Carcinogens cause cancer by making changes to the host's DNA. They can be chemical (ex. pharmaceutical drugs), or viral (ex. Epstein-Barr). Additionally, exposure to radiation has also been known to damage DNA and is another form of a carcinogen. 

Example Question #33 : Conditions And Treatments

Ethel is an 80-year-old woman who is receiving chemotherapy for the treatment of a tumor. You are the nurse taking care of Ethel. While her chemotherapy is infusing __________.

Possible Answers:

you practice hourly rounding

you elevate the extremity of venous access

you ask your colleague to cover you while you go to lunch

you check the infusion site frequently

you call the physician frequently to update him on her response 

Correct answer:

you check the infusion site frequently

Explanation:

Chemotherapeutic agents are often very irritating to the tissue if they unintentionally travel to areas outside the vein. They can cause severe tissue loss and degradation. Patients receiving chemotherapy need to be monitored closely for signs of infiltration.

Example Question #841 : Nclex

Nathan received chemotherapy 24 hours ago. You instruct Nathan to __________.

Possible Answers:

Throw away soiled sheets for 48 hours

flush the toilet twice after going to the bathroom

clean soiled areas three or more times using bleach

only drink bottled water for 48 hours

wear gloves when preparing foods

Correct answer:

flush the toilet twice after going to the bathroom

Explanation:

People receiving chemotherapy should flush the toilet twice after use for at least 48 hours to avoid exposing anybody else to the byproducts of the chemotherapy drugs. Wearing gloves when preparing foods, throwing away linens, using excessive bleach, and drinking bottled water are not necessary and do not significantly reduce risk to others. 

Example Question #31 : Conditions And Treatments

Identify the chemotherapeutic agent. 

Possible Answers:

Methotrexate

Gabapentin

Lamotrigine

Levofloxacin

Furosemide

Correct answer:

Methotrexate

Explanation:

Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent. Levofloxacin is an antibiotic, lamotrigine is a mood stabilizer, gabapentin is an anti-epileptic agent, and furosemide is a diuretic. 

Example Question #34 : Tumors And Cancer

The oncology nurse cares for a patient receiving internal radiation treatment for cancer. Which of the following scenarios most concerns the nurse?

Possible Answers:

The nursing assistant provides care in the patient’s room for 2 hours during the 8-hour shift.

The physician performs a physical assessment for 10 minutes.

The charge nurse asks providers if they are pregnant before assigning them to this patient’s care.

The nursing student stands away from the patient while talking to him.

The patient complains about remaining on bedrest and asks to stand up.

Correct answer:

The nursing assistant provides care in the patient’s room for 2 hours during the 8-hour shift.

Explanation:

When caring for a patient receiving internal radiation, the length of exposure to the radiation is a high priority for the nurse. It is important to rotate staff who care for the patient, limiting close contact to 30 minutes per 8 hour shift. Additionally, it is important to organize tasks so limited time is spent in the client’s room. Visitors must also be limited. Pregnant women should not be assigned to work with this client. The patient must be on bedrest while sealed sources of radiation are placed. It is also important not to stand close to the radioactive source.

Example Question #34 : Conditions And Treatments

Which of the following is not a proven risk-factor for the development of oral cancer? 

Possible Answers:

A diet with inadequate amounts of fruits and vegetables.

Excessive alcohol consumption.

Tobacco product use.

Regular use of alcohol-containing mouthwash. 

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Correct answer:

Regular use of alcohol-containing mouthwash. 

Explanation:

All of the above are proven risk factors with the exception of mouthwash use. Poor dental care, prolonged present irritation (such as excessive flossing), tobacco and alcohol use, infection with certain strains of HPV, and an unbalanced diet can increase the risk of oral cancer. 

Example Question #1 : Symptoms And Tests For Tumors

Which leukemia is linked to the Philadelphia chromosome? 

Possible Answers:

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) 

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Correct answer:

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Explanation:

The Philadelphia chromosome, which is an abnormality in chromosome 22, is most often found in bone marrow cells of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. It may also occasionally be found in acute lymphocytic leukemia, though this is rare.

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