NCLEX : Other General Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #171 : General Biology

What type of cell is embedded in the olfactory epithelium?

Possible Answers:

Olfactory sensory neurons

Basal cells

All of these

Supporting cells

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are three types of cells embedded in the olfactory epithelium: basal cells, supporting cells, and olfactory sensory neurons. All three of these cells play a significant role in the sense of smell, though the olfactory sensory neurons are the only cell type that actually respond to chemical stimuli. 

Example Question #172 : Other General Biology

All of the following parts of the brain are involved in olfactory sense and recognition except which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The orbitofrontal cortex

The arcuate nucleus

The piriform complex

The insula

Correct answer:

The arcuate nucleus

Explanation:

The olfactory perception is managed by several parts of the brain, the primary areas being the piriform cortex, the insula, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Other lesser involved areas of the brain include the anterior olfactory nucleus, the amygdala, the entorhinal cortex, and the olfactory tubercle.

The arcuate nucleus is an area of the hypothalamus that is involved in regulation of hunger and satiety. 

Example Question #173 : Other General Biology

Where is the olfactory epithelium is located?

Possible Answers:

The eustachian tube

The sphenoid sinus

The roof of the nasal cavity

The inferior turbinate

Correct answer:

The roof of the nasal cavity

Explanation:

The olfactory epithelium is located at the roof of the nasal cavity in a relatively large area that includes the superior turbinate and the superior portion of the nasal septum. There are no specialized olfactory cells on the inferior turbinates, and no olfactory receptors in either the sphenoid sinus of the eustachian tube. 

Example Question #171 : Other General Biology

Which of the following tastes has the lowest detection threshold?

Possible Answers:

Salty

Bitter

Sour

Sweet

Correct answer:

Bitter

Explanation:

The human tongue can detect bitter flavors at concentrations as low as 8 micromolars per liter. In comparison, in the average person the detection threshold for sucrose is 10 millimoles per liter. The reason for the extreme sensitivity of the human tongue to bitter flavors may be protective, as many poisonous or toxic substances have a bitter taste.

Example Question #172 : Other General Biology

All taste buds of the tongue are located in what structure(s)?

Possible Answers:

In the terminal sulcus

In the apex

In the papillae

In the palatoglossal arch

Correct answer:

In the papillae

Explanation:

Taste buds are located in the papillae of the tongue, a group of structures lining the surface of the tongue from the apex to the base. These papillae are also present in the cheek, the soft palate, the epiglottis, and the upper esophagus. They are not present in the palatoglossal arch.

Example Question #1 : Other Biology Concepts

Of the four types of lingual papillae, which is the only type that does not contain taste buds?

Possible Answers:

Foliate papillae

Filiform papillae

Circumvallate papillae

Fungiform papillae

Correct answer:

Filiform papillae

Explanation:

Filiform papillae, the most numerous of the lingual papillae, is the only type that does not contain taste buds. Rather, they serve to move food toward the esophagus, cleanse the interior of the mouth, and spread saliva onto food and mucus membranes.

Example Question #173 : Other General Biology

Which of the following cranial nerves is not involved in the sensation of taste?

Possible Answers:

The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X)

The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)

The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)

The glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX)

Correct answer:

The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)

Explanation:

The sensation of taste is carried to the brainstem by three cranial nerves: the facial nerve (CN VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), and the vagus nerve (CN X). The facial and glossopharyngeal nerves both communicate sensation from the tongue, while the vagus nerve transmits sensory information from the epiglottis. The trigeminal nerve (CN V) is not directly involved in the sensation of taste, though there is evidence that it is involved in the senses of "heat" and "coolness" experienced while eating spicy or minty foods.

Example Question #11 : Other Biology Concepts

In addition to the tongue, epiglottis, and pharynx, taste receptors are located in which of the following organs?

Possible Answers:

The lung

The pancreas

All of these are correct

The testicle

Correct answer:

All of these are correct

Explanation:

In addition to the taste receptors in the mouth and pharynx, taste receptors are located in many other areas of the body. These including the lung (which has taste receptors for bitter flavors, possibly as a mechanism to protect against airborne toxins), the pancreas, the small intestine, the stomach, the brain, and the testis. While the function of taste receptors in the testes is not well known, some research indicates that testicular taste receptors may play an important role in male fertility.  

Example Question #481 : Nclex

Which of the following tastes is not associated with a G protein-coupled receptor?

Possible Answers:

Umami

Sweet 

Salty

Bitter

Correct answer:

Salty

Explanation:

Sweet, umami, and bitter taste are all correlated with receptors for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, also known as G proteins. Taste bud receptors that transmit information about saltiness are triggered by sodium ion channels in the cell wall. 

Example Question #484 : Nclex

Which of the following is not a form of lingual papillae?

Possible Answers:

Stratified

Foliate 

Circumvallate

Fungiform

Correct answer:

Stratified

Explanation:

The four types of lingual papillae are fungiform (mushroom-shaped), filiform ("thread-like"), circumvallate, and foliate.

Filiform papillae are the most numerous, covering the majority of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Fungiform papillae are scattered along the surface of the tongue, but are more concentrated on the tip and sides of the tongue. Foliate papillae are located on the sides and back of the tongue, and circumvallate papillae are the large, round papillae visible in a row on the posterior aspect of the tongue, just anterior to the foramen cecum and sulcus terminalis.  

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