NCLEX : Other General Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : General Biology

The most superior part of the stomach is the __________.

Possible Answers:

fundus

body

pyloric antrum

rugae

Correct answer:

fundus

Explanation:

The areas of the stomach, from superior to inferior, are the fundus, the body, and the pyloric antrum. The rugae are folds in the stomach that increase its surface area and expandability. 

Example Question #11 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

What ligament attaches the liver to the abdominal wall?

Possible Answers:

The falciform ligament

The ligament of Treitz

The splenorenal ligament

Ligamentum flava

Correct answer:

The falciform ligament

Explanation:

The ligament of Treitz suspends the duodenum, while the splenorenal ligament goes between the left kidney and the spleen. Ligamentum flava are ligaments present in the spinal cord.

Example Question #11 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

Which of the following digestive enzymes breaks down starches?

Possible Answers:

Lipase

Protease

Peptidase

Amylase

Correct answer:

Amylase

Explanation:

Amylase enzymes, produced by the salivary gland and the pancreas, break starched down into simple sugars. Peptidase and protease enzymes break down proteins, while lipase enzymes break down lipids.

Example Question #11 : Other General Biology

Which of the following substances helps emulsify fats during digestion?

Possible Answers:

Bile acids

Hydrochloric acid

Pancreatic lipase

Cholecystokinin

Correct answer:

Bile acids

Explanation:

Bile acids, produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, help emulsify fats during digestion. The process of emulsification makes fats collect into small droplets, increasing the surface area of ingested lipids and increasing the ability of pancreatic lipase to break fats down into fatty acids and glycerol. Hydrochloric acid aids in the breakdown of proteins in the stomach, and cholecystokinin is a hormone with a wide variety of functions in the digestive process, including the stimulation of the release of bile (though it does itself not play a role in emulsification of fats).

Example Question #11 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

Which of the following would be a normal gastric pH?

Possible Answers:

4.0

1.2

2.0

4.8

Correct answer:

2.0

Explanation:

Normal gastric pH ranges from 1.5 to 3.5. This highly acidic environment aids the stomach in denaturing proteins, a fundamental part of digestion. 

Example Question #14 : General Biology

Where does lipid digestion begin?

Possible Answers:

The jejunum

The duodenum

The ileum

The stomach

Correct answer:

The duodenum

Explanation:

While a small amount of fat digestion may occur in the mouth via the action of lingual lipase, the majority of lipid digestions begins in the duodenum. The presence of fat in the small intestine triggers release of pancreatic lipase, which enters the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. Fat digestion does not occur in the stomach.

Example Question #11 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

Which of the following structures controls the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile into the duodenum?

Possible Answers:

The ampulla of vater

The ileocecal valve

The sphincter of Oddi

The pyloric sphincter

Correct answer:

The sphincter of Oddi

Explanation:

The pancreatic duct and common bile duct come together at the ampulla of vater, allowing for the combination of pancreatic enzymes and bile. This combination is released into the duodenum via the relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, a muscular ring at the end of the ampulla. The sphincter of Oddi also prevents any back-flow of duodenal contents into the ampulla.

The pyloric sphincter controls flow of chyme between the stomach and the duodenum, while the ileocecal valve separates the small and large intestine. 

Example Question #12 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

Lipids are transported out of the digestive tract via what system?

Possible Answers:

The lymphatic system

The circulatory system

The hepatic system

The excretory stsyem

Correct answer:

The lymphatic system

Explanation:

Lipids are transported out of the digestive system via lacteals, lymphatic capillaries within the vilii of the small intestine that absorb fatty acids in the form of chylomicrons. They are then transported through the lymphatic system and re-enter the blood stream via the thoracic duct.

The hepatic system produces bile, a vital part of lipid digestion, but it does not absorb lipids. Nor does the excretory system, which is not really a single system but rather a collection of organ systems including the kidney, skin, liver, and colon.

Example Question #13 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

Where is gastrin produced?

Possible Answers:

G cells of the stomach

Chief cells of the stomach

Beta-islet cells of the pancreas

Parietal cells of the stomach

Correct answer:

G cells of the stomach

Explanation:

Gastrin is produced by the G cells of the stomach. Parietal cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid, while chief cells secrete pepsinogen and chymosin. Beta-islet cells of the pancreas produce glucagon. 

Example Question #14 : Gastrointestinal Physiology

 The hydrolysis of oligosaccharides into disaccharides occurs in what part of the digestive tract?

Possible Answers:

The duodenum

The jejunum

The ileum

The stomach

Correct answer:

The duodenum

Explanation:

The hydrolysis of oligosaccharides into disaccharides occurs in the duodenum, after the addition of pancreatic amylase from the pancreatic duct.   

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