Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Respiratory and Endocrine Organs

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

The right lobe of the lung has __________ lobe(s) while the left lobe of the lung has __________ lobe(s). 

Possible Answers:

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

Correct answer:

. . . 

Explanation:

The right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung has 2 lobes. This is because the right lobe has 2 fissures, while the left lobe only has 1. The right lobe is separated into the superior, middle, and inferior lobes by the horizontal and oblique fissures, respectively. The left lobe is divided into the superior and inferior lobes by the oblique fissure. 

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

In the right lung, the pulmonary artery is __________ to the bronchus. 

Possible Answers:

superior

posterior

anterior

distal

inferior

Correct answer:

anterior

Explanation:

In the right lung, the pulmonary artery is anterior to the bronchus. Instead, in the left lung, the pulmonary artery is superior to the bronchus. The mnemonic "RALS" is a helpful tool to remember this. RALS stands for in the Right lung, the pulmonary artery is Anterior to the bronchus, while in the Left lung, the pulmonary artery is Superior to the bronchus. It is important to be able to identify these features because they will help us know which lung we are looking at. 

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

In the left lung, the pulmonary artery is __________ to the bronchus. 

Possible Answers:

proximal

anterior

inferior

superior

posterior

Correct answer:

superior

Explanation:

In the right lung, the pulmonary artery is anterior to the bronchus. Instead, in the left lung, the pulmonary artery is superior to the bronchus. The mnemonic "RALS" is a helpful tool to remember this. RALS stands for in the Right lung, the pulmonary artery is Anterior to the bronchus, while in the Left lung, the pulmonary artery is Superior to the bronchus. It is important to be able to identify these features because they will help us know which lung we are looking at.

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

The __________ lung is generally smaller than the __________ lung.

Possible Answers:

None of these - size varies between athletes and non-athletes

None of these - they are the same size

None of these - they are the same size, but have a different number of lobes

left . . . right

right . . . left

Correct answer:

left . . . right

Explanation:

The left is smaller and has only two lobes because it allows room for the heart in its cardiac notch. The right lung has three lobes. Remember, if you are looking at the anterior side of a human (face side), the right lung is on your left side as the observer. 

Example Question #12 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which of the following is the largest structure that allows gas exchange?

Possible Answers:

Trachea

Terminal bronchioles

Bronchi

Respiratory bronchioles

Alveoli

Correct answer:

Respiratory bronchioles

Explanation:

Air from the nose or mouth meets the trachea, then the bronchi, then the bronchioles (primary, secondary, tertiary, terminal, then respiratory), then to the alveolar sacs and ducts, and finally the alveoli. Each structure after the bronchi is more branched and thinner to allow the successive expansion of air volume to meet the alveoli. The first part in the respiratory tract where gas exchange occurs is across the respiratory bronchioles, every structure leading to these have been purely for ventilation. However, the alveoli are the main site of gas exchange in the lungs.

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

From where does the diaphragm receive innervation?

Possible Answers:

C4 only

Vagus nerve

C3 and C5 only

The anterior pulmonary plexus

C3, 4, and 5 (phrenic nerve)

Correct answer:

C3, 4, and 5 (phrenic nerve)

Explanation:

The diaphragm is innervated by C3-C5 (phrenic nerve). The phrenic nerve receives innervation from parts of both the cervical plexus and the brachial plexus. The phrenic nerve contains motor, sensory, and sympathetic nerve fibers, providing motor supply to the diaphragm as well as sensation to the central tendon. Pain from the diaphragm can be referred to the shoulder.

Example Question #13 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

What structure prevents food from entering the airway during swallowing?

Possible Answers:

Epiglottis

Pharynx

Trachea

Tongue 

Larynx

Correct answer:

Epiglottis

Explanation:

The epiglottis is a flaplike cartilaginous structure. During breathing it stands upright, allowing air to enter the larynx. However, upon swallowing the epiglottis folds downward to a more horizontal position in order to cover the opening of the windpipe. This movement directs food to the esophagus and prevents food from entering air passages.

Example Question #13 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

How many lobes are in the right and left lungs? 

Possible Answers:

Right: 3

Left: 2

Right: 2

Left: 3

Right: 3

Left: 3

Right: 2

Left: 2

Correct answer:

Right: 3

Left: 2

Explanation:

The right lung consists of 3 lobes: the superior lobe, the middle lobe, and the inferior lobe (also known as: upper, middle, and lower lobes). The superior and middle lobes are divided by the horizontal fissure, while the middle and inferior lobes are separated by the oblique fissure. The left lung is made up of 2 lobes, the superior and inferior lobes. These are separated by the oblique fissure. 

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

In what body cavity are the lungs located?

Possible Answers:

Pelvic

Cranial

Abdominal

Thoracic

Vertebral

Correct answer:

Thoracic

Explanation:

The thoracic cavity contains the lungs and the heart (the heart is located within the mediastinum which is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity). The diaphragm forms the floor of the thoracic cavity and separates it from the more inferior abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity is the largest cavity in the body. The thoracic cavity is protected by the thoracic wall which consists of the ribcage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia. The cranial and vertebral cavities are the dorsal cavities in which the central nervous system are encased.

Example Question #11 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

The trachea leads to the __________.

Possible Answers:

pulmonary vessel

stomach

esophagus

bronchioles

bronchi

Correct answer:

bronchi

Explanation:

The trachea (windpipe) is a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing for the passage of air. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. There is a right bronchus and a left bronchus and these branch into secondary and tertiary bronchi which branch into smaller tubes, known as bronchioles, then eventually to terminal bronchioles. No gas exchange occurs in the bronchi. The first site of gas exchange is the respiratory bronchioles, which lead into alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.

At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. The epiglottis closes the opening of the larynx during swallowing. 

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