Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Respiratory and Endocrine Organs

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #521 : Human Anatomy And Physiology

All of the following are true about the right lung except __________.

Possible Answers:

its medial surface lies adjacent to inferior vena cava

its medial surface lies adjacent to the azygos vein

it has an oblique and horizontal fissure

its medial surface lies adjacent to the aortic arch

it has 3 lobes

Correct answer:

its medial surface lies adjacent to the aortic arch

Explanation:

The medial surface of the right lung lies adjacent only to heart, inferior and superior vena cava, azygos vein, and esophagus. The medial surface of the left lung lies adjacent to heart, aortic arch, thoracic arch, and esophagus.

Example Question #522 : Human Anatomy And Physiology

Which lung contains the lingula?

Possible Answers:

The right

The left

Both

Neither

Correct answer:

The left

Explanation:

The lingula is a tongue shaped portion of the upper lobe of the left lung. The left lung only has two lobes (upper and lower), which are divided by an oblique fissure. The left lung also has a cardiac impression, a cardiac notch, and groves for various parts of the aorta and other vasculature.

The right lung has three lobes (upper, middle, and lower). The right lung is larger than the left but it is shorter since the right dome of the diaphragm is higher (due to the liver).

Example Question #21 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Where are the adrenal glands?

Possible Answers:

Within the skull

Below the kidney

Above the kidneys (suprarenal)

Between the lungs

Correct answer:

Above the kidneys (suprarenal)

Explanation:

The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are trianglular glands situated above the kidneys. They are retroperitoneal and are surrounded by a capsule and renal fascia. The adrenal glands have a cortex (this makes mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), glucocorticoids (cortisol), and sex hormones). The adrenal glands also have a medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. 

Example Question #22 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

What is the name of cells in the lung that facilitate oxygen exchange between alveolar air and blood vessels?

Possible Answers:

Macrophages

Neutrophils

Oligodendrocytes

Type 1 pneumocytes

Type 2 pneumocytes

Correct answer:

Type 1 pneumocytes

Explanation:

Type 1 pneumocytes (alveolar cells) are responsible for gas exchange between the alveoli and blood. They have a thin cytoplasm. Type 2 pneumocytes also reside in the alveoli, but they produce surfactant which prevents the alveoli from collapsing. Macrophages and neutrophils can be present in the alveoli or lung blood vessels, but they do not participate in gas exchange,but are involved in the response against microbial infections. Oligodendrocytes are neuroglia in the central nervous system that produce myelin sheets.

Example Question #23 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which of the following is a purely endocrine gland?

Possible Answers:

Stomach

Ovary

Adrenal gland

Pancreas

Correct answer:

Adrenal gland

Explanation:

The adrenal gland functions purely as an endocrine gland, while the other choices do not. The pancreas and stomach contain endocrine cells, but they also function in digestion; they are not  purely endocrine glands. The ovary also contains endocrine cells, but it also functions in reproduction and is thus not a purely endocrine gland.

Example Question #24 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Respiration involves the exchange between oxygen in the air and carbon dioxide in the blood. In which portion of the respiratory system does this occur?

Possible Answers:

Bronchi

Trachea

Nasal cavity

Alveolar sac

Correct answer:

Alveolar sac

Explanation:

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the thin walls of the air sacs, or alveoli. The nasal cavity, bronchi, and trachea are responsible for filtering, humidifying, and warming the air passing through them. They do not function in gas exchange.

Example Question #24 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Among pneumocytes in the lungs, type II cells do not __________.

Possible Answers:

line the alveoli

proliferate during lung damage

serve as precursor to type I cells

decrease alveolar surface tension

secrete pulmonary surfactant

Correct answer:

line the alveoli

Explanation:

Of the pneumocytes, type II cells are responsible for secreting pulmonary surfactant, serve as precursors to type I cells, proliferate during lung damage and decrease alveolar surface tension.

Type I cells, on the other hand, line the aveoli and consist of 97% of the alveolar surface. The cells are squamous and thin for optimal gas diffusion. 

An easy way to differentiate between the two types of lung cells is to remember that type I cells are responsible for the physical lining and makeup of pneumocytes, while type II cells are responsible for the functioning of the pneumocytes.

Example Question #25 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

The right lung has 3 lobes and the left lung has __________ lobe(s).

Possible Answers:

4

2

3

0

1

Correct answer:

2

Explanation:

The right lung has 3 lobes: superior lobe, middle lobe and inferior lobe.

The left lung has 2 lobes: superior lobe and inferior lobe. There is no middle lobe in the left lung because this space in the left lung is occupied by the heart. 

Example Question #26 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

Which of the following organs is NOT part of the lower respiratory tract?

Possible Answers:

lungs 

trachea

bronchi

pharynx 

larynx 

Correct answer:

pharynx 

Explanation:

The respiratory tract is divided into the upper and lower tracts. The upper respiratory tract consists of the nose (including nasal sinuses) and pharynx. The lower respiratory tract consists of the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. 

Example Question #27 : Identifying Respiratory And Endocrine Organs

The larynx connects the __________ with the __________. 

Possible Answers:

pharynx, trachea 

pharynx, Epiglottis 

trachea, Bronchi

 nasal cavity, pharynx 

pharynx, Bronchi

Correct answer:

pharynx, trachea 

Explanation:

The larynx, also known as the voice box, connects the pharynx to the trachea. The larynx is formed from folds of laryngeal mucous membrane lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage located in the throat that prevents food and water from entering the larynx (and airway) when swallowing.  

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