College Chemistry : Liquids and Solutions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for College Chemistry

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Liquids And Solutions

If a liquid has a low resistance to flow, it has a low __________

Possible Answers:

Melting point

Vapor pressure

Boiling point

Volume

Viscosity

Correct answer:

Viscosity

Explanation:

By definition, viscosity is the measure of a liquid's resistance to flow. If a liquid has a low viscosity, it has a low resistance to flow. It may not necessarily always have a low boiling point, melting point, and/or vapor pressure due to this characteristic. Viscosity is just a way to measure and describe one physical characteristic (resistance to flow) of a liquid. The volume of a liquid does not say anything about its physical properties.

Example Question #1 : Solubility Rules And Precipitates

Write an equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs (if it occurs) when a solution of strontium chloride is mixed with a solution of lithium phosphate.

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Start by writing out the the chemical formulas for the reactants:

In order to figure out the possible products, combine the cation of one molecule with the anion of the other molecule.

For this reaction, the possible products are  and .

Next, use solubility rules to figure out if any precipitate is formed. Since compounds with are soluble,  is soluble. Since  is only soluble when paired with  is insoluble.

Thus, we can write the final chemical equation:

Example Question #1 : Solubility Rules And Precipitates

Which of the following is insoluble in water?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Recall the solubility rules:

 is generally soluble, except when paired with .

 

Example Question #1 : Solubility Rules And Precipitates

Which of the following substances is insoluble in aqueous solution?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Solubility rules can help us find the answer to this question. 

First, solubility rules state that all compounds of Group 1A elements on the periodic table are soluble in aqueous solution. This means that all of the alkali metals, including potassium, form compounds which are soluble in aqueous solution; thus,  is soluble in aqueous solution.

Solubility rules also tell us that all ammonium salts (salts of ) are soluble. This means that  is soluble.

Next, solubility rules tell us that all bromide salts are soluble, except for those of , and . Thus,  is not soluble in aqueous solution. However, as lithium is not included in that list,  is soluble in aqueous solution.

Example Question #1 : Liquids And Solutions

Which of the following is not readily soluble in water?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Remember the solubility rules for ionic solids in water:

1) Salts of group 1 (with few exceptions) and NH4are soluble

2) Nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates are soluble

3) Salts of silver, lead, and mercury (I) are insoluble

4) Chlorides, iodides, and bromides are soluble

5) Carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, oxides, and hydroxides are insoluble. Exceptions: sulfides of group 2 cations and hydroxides of calcium, strontium, and barium are slightly soluble

6) Sulfates are soluble except for those of calcium, strontium, and barium

Following these rules, we see that MgOH is insoluble in water

Example Question #1 : Molarity, Molality, Normality

A solution is prepared by dissolving  in  of water. The final volume of the solution is . Find the concentration of the solution in units of molality.

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Recall how to find the molality of a solution:

First, start by finding the moles of glucose that we have. The molar mass of glucose is .

Next, convert the grams of water into kilograms.

Now, plug in the moles of glucose and kilograms of water into the equation for molality.

Example Question #1 : Molarity, Molality, Normality

A solution of hydrogen peroxide is  by mass. What is the molarity of the solution? Assume that the solution has a density of .

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Start by assuming that we have  of this solution. Recall that hydrogen peroxide has a molecular formula of .

Use the given density to find the mass of the solution.

Next, find the mass of the hydrogen peroxide present in the solution.

Convert the mass of hydrogen peroxide into moles of hydrogen peroxide.

Recall how to find the molarity of a solution:

Since we have  of solution, the molarity is .

Example Question #3 : Molarity, Molality, Normality

What is the molarity of a solution in which  sodium hydrogen carbonate is dissolved in a  solution?  

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

 sodium hydrogen carbonate dissolved in a  solution has 

The first step is to calculate how many moles of  are present.  

We calculate molarity with the following equation: 

Example Question #4 : Molarity, Molality, Normality

How many milliliters of a  solution are needed to prepare  of ?  

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

 of  solution are needed to prepare  of .  

We can use the formula 

Therefore, 

Example Question #5 : Molarity, Molality, Normality

What are the concentrations of aluminum and sulfate in a 3.0 M solution of aluminum sulfate? 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

The relative concentrations of aluminum sulfate  are

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