AP Psychology : Social Development

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Social Development

Which of the following terms would describe an individual who engages in emotional intimacy and even romantic relationships, but is uninterested in pursuing sexual experiences?

Possible Answers:

Asexual

Gender neutral

Genderqueer

Agender

Correct answer:

Asexual

Explanation:

One's sexuality generally describes interest in sexual partners and experiences, while one's gender identity can be a more personal factor in the definition of self. One might identify as a man, a woman, as genderqueer, or as a number of other gender identities. The terms "agender," "gender neutral," and "genderqueer" all refer to gender identities. In contrast, "asexual" is a term used to describe one's general disinterest in the pursuit of sexual experiences. An asexual individual may still be interested in close emotional relationships and romance.

Example Question #12 : Social Development

Who coined the term "basic trust?"

Possible Answers:

Urie Bronfenbrenner

Lawrence Kohlberg

James Maslow

Erik Erikson

Mary Ainsworth

Correct answer:

Erik Erikson

Explanation:

Erikson theorized that "basic trust" is a child's sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. An infant is able to develop basic trust through positive relationships with his or her caregivers. 

Example Question #12 : Social Development

Which of the following linguistic capacities do infants acquire first?

Possible Answers:

Distinguishing their own native language from others spoken to them

Speaking in words

Distinguishing speech from other sounds

Babbling

Understanding prosody

Correct answer:

Distinguishing speech from other sounds

Explanation:

Infants can distinguish speech from other sounds at as early an age as four months old. Shortly after that, they will begin to babble and coo. By ten months old, they become able to distinguish their own native language from others spoken to them. At 12-18 months old, they begin to use words themselves, and they start to understand prosody between 18 and 24 months of age.

Example Question #14 : Social Development

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution.

According to Erikson, which of the following stages faces issues associated with initiative versus guilt?

Possible Answers:

Young adult 

Toddlerhood

Elementary school 

Preschool 

Infancy 

Correct answer:

Preschool 

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the preschool stage (from about 3 to 6 years of age), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with initiative versus guilt. He hypothesized that children at this stage will learn to either take the initiative to start and carry out tasks or that they will feel guilty about their attempts to be independent. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. trust versus mistrust or autonomy versus shame and doubt) and are incorrect. 

Example Question #55 : Dimensions Of Psychological Development

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution. 

According to Erikson, which of the following stages faces issues associated with competence versus inferiority?

 

Possible Answers:

Preschool 

Late adulthood 

Adolescence 

Elementary school

Young adulthood 

Correct answer:

Elementary school

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the elementary school stage (from about 6 years of age to puberty), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with competence versus inferiority. He hypothesized that children at this stage will experience pleasures associated with applying themselves to issues and tasks. If not, then he theorized that they would develop feelings of inferiority. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. initiative versus guilt or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect. 

Example Question #491 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution. 

According to Erikson, which of the following stages faces issues associated with intimacy versus isolation.

Possible Answers:

Middle adulthood 

Late adulthood 

Adolescence 

Elementary school 

Young adulthood 

Correct answer:

Young adulthood 

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the young adulthood stage (from the early twenties to the early forties), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with intimacy versus isolation. He hypothesized that individuals at this stage struggle with forming close relationships in the hope to achieve intimate love. He theorized that if this is not accomplished, then the individual might feel socially isolated. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. integrity versus despair or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect.

Example Question #12 : Social Development

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution.

According to Erikson, which of the following stages faces issues associated with generativity versus stagnation?

 

Possible Answers:

Young adulthood 

Adolescence 

Middle adulthood

Infancy 

Late adulthood 

Correct answer:

Middle adulthood

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the middle adulthood stage (from the forties to the sixties), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with generativity versus stagnation. He hypothesized that individuals at this stage experience feelings associated with worldly contributions. He theorized that this usually manifests itself through family or work. If this is not achieved, then the individual may feel that they lack a life purpose. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. intimacy versus isolation or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect.

Example Question #491 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution. 

According to Erikson, which of the following stages faces issues associated with integrity versus despair?

Possible Answers:

Preschool 

Middle adulthood 

Infancy 

Late adulthood 

Adolescence 

Correct answer:

Late adulthood 

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the late adulthood stage (from late the sixties and older), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with integrity versus despair. He hypothesized that adults at this stage begin to reflect upon their lives. He theorized that an older individual may reflect and either feel satisfied or a sense of failure. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. initiative versus guilt or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect.

Example Question #152 : Developmental Psychology

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution. 

According to Erikson, which of the following choices best describes the rationale for adolescents trying out different "selves"?

Possible Answers:

To establish an identity

To develop a capacity for intimacy 

To establish a group identity

To establish autonomy 

To establish parent and peer relationships

Correct answer:

To establish an identity

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the adolescence stage, he believed that teens experienced issues associated with identity versus role confusion. He contended that it was normal for adolescents to "try" different roles in attempt to resolve this issue. In this process, the teen establishes a sense of self. Erikson theorized that roles and sense of self could be integrated to create a single identity. Erikson argued that a failure to do so would result in an adolescent that was confused and unsure of where he or she belonged in society. 

Example Question #492 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Erik Erikson is well known for his theory of psychosocial development: the idea that every stage of life contains a crisis in need of resolution. 

According to Erikson, which of the following stages faces issues associated with identity versus role confusion?

Possible Answers:

Adolescence 

Late adulthood 

Elementary school 

Young adulthood

Middle adulthood 

Correct answer:

Adolescence 

Explanation:

Erik Erikson was a theorist who believed that each stage of life had its own task to overcome. Erickson’s psychosocial stages included the following: infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. He assigned each stage with an approximate age range. In the adolescence stage (from early teens into the twenties), Erikson believed people needed to resolve issues associated with identity versus role confusion. He hypothesized that teens at this stage are trying to determine which role fits them best in order to establish a sense of self. He theorized that eventually adolescents would integrate their roles and sense of self to establish a single identity. If this is not achieved, then the teen may experience identity related confusion. The other provided options are stages in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; however, they each have their own tasks (i.e. intimacy versus isolation or identity versus role confusion) and are incorrect. 

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