AP Biology : Plant Structures

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Plant Structures

Which of the following structures is unique to plant cells?

Possible Answers:

Chloroplasts

Mitchondria

Lysosomes

Vacuoles

Endoplasmic reticulum

Correct answer:

Chloroplasts

Explanation:

Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis; therefore they are unique to plant cells. All the other mentioned organelles can be found in both animal and plant cells.

Example Question #2 : Plant Structures

Which of the following can be found in plant cells, but not animal cells?

Possible Answers:

Ribosomes

Cell membrane

Chloroplasts

Mitochondria

Correct answer:

Chloroplasts

Explanation:

Chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis, are only in plant cells and are not found in animal cells. Ribosomes, a cell membrane, and a mitochondria, however, can be found in both animal and plant cells.

The other structure that may be found in plant cells, but not animal cells, is a cell wall.

Example Question #2 : Plant Biology

Where in the chloroplasts does the Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis take place?

Possible Answers:

Stroma

Thylakoid lumen

Thylakoid membrane

Grana

Intermembrane space

Correct answer:

Stroma

Explanation:

The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma, the aqueous fluid-filled area of the chloroplast. The stroma can be seen as analogous to the cytoplasm of a cell, in that it is the liquid in which all other substructures reside. The other processes of photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions, take place in the thylakoid, a membrane-bound substructure within the chloroplast.

Example Question #1 : Cellular Structures

Which of the following terms can be described as the green pigment located within chloroplasts?

Possible Answers:

Photoreceptors

Chlorophyll

Mesophyll

Stomata

Correct answer:

Chlorophyll

Explanation:

Chlorophyll is what gives plants their green color. The chlorophyll located in the chloroplasts captures the light energy that drives the synthesis of food molecules in the chloroplasts—photosynthesis.

Example Question #2 : Cellular Structures

Which of the following best describes where chloroplasts are primarily located?

Possible Answers:

Stroma

Stomata

Mesophyll

Roots

Correct answer:

Mesophyll

Explanation:

Chloroplasts are found mainly in the cells of the mesophyll, which is the tissue in the interior of the leaf. Stomata are the pores that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to exit the leaf. The stroma is the dense fluid content of the chloroplast.

Example Question #1 : Plant Structures

What is the organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll?

Possible Answers:

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Correct answer:

Chloroplasts

Explanation:

Chloroplasts are the organelles that contains chlorophyll. Mitochondria produce ATP and are not directly involved in capturing light and photosynthesis. The Golgi apparatus is involved in packaging substances, and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum are involved in lipid production.

Example Question #1 : Plant Structures

Inside the chloroplast, what is the name of a stack of thylakoids?

Possible Answers:

Stroma

Mitochondria

Granum

Thylakoidum

Correct answer:

Granum

Explanation:

A stack of thylakoids is known as granum. Stroma is the region outside the thylakoid membranes, but still inside the chloroplast. Mitochondria is the organelle that produces ATP, and there is no such organelle called thylakoidum.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Plant Microstructures

Plant cells  differentiate to perform different functions and enable the plant to grow. One cell type is present in young stems and petioles and functions to provide flexible support. This cell type is less resistant to bending forces because it lacks a secondary cell wall and the protein lignin, which causes rigidity in other plant cells. 

What differentiated plant cell is being described?

Possible Answers:

Sieve plate cells

Collenchyma cells

Sclerenchyma cells

Parenchyma cells

Correct answer:

Collenchyma cells

Explanation:

As described in the beginning of this question, collenchyma cells are found in young stems and petioles (leaves) and function to provide flexible support to the plant. This is because chollenchyma cells lack secondary cell walls and do not produce lignin to harden them—this protein is characteristic of sclerenchyma cells, which are also used to provide support/strength to the plant. 

Due to their lack of rigidity, collenchyma cells a also capable of elongating with the stems and leaves they support, allowing them to remain alive at maturity. Sclerenchymal cells lack this ability.

Example Question #1131 : Ap Biology

Plant cells differentiate to be able to perform different functions and enable it to grow. One cell type has a critical job in supporting the plant. These cells have secondary walls that are further strengthened by a glue-like substance called lignin, which increases the cell's rigidity. At maturity, these cells cannot elongate and are found in regions of the plant that have stopped growing, forming a "skeleton" for the plant.

What type of differentiated plant cell is described?

Possible Answers:

Parenchyma cells

Sclerenchyma cells

Secondary meristems

Collenchyma cells

Correct answer:

Sclerenchyma cells

Explanation:

As described in the background to the question, sclerenchyma cells are specialized to support the plant as it grows. These cells have thick secondary walls that are further strengthened by the hardening agent called lignin.  As a result, these cells are highly rigid and inflexible.  

At maturity, these cells cannot elongate and are found in regions of the plant that have stopped growing. In some parts of the plant, the sclerenchyma cells may even be dead; however, the rigid walls remain and act like a skeleteon that supports the remainder of the plaint over its lifetime.  

Sclerenchyma cells can also further differentiate into two types called sclereids and fibers. Sclerids can provide hardness to nut shells. Fibers, as their name suggests, are usually arranged in long threads and have commercial uses, such as being made into rope.

Example Question #1 : Plant Structures

Which of the following is a key component of a plant's vascular system?

Possible Answers:

Cuticle

Xylem

Pericycle

Parenchyma

Correct answer:

Xylem

Explanation:

The vascular system in plants is designed to transport materials (water, nutrients, food) between the roots and shoots. There are two primary types of tissue dedicated to these processes. Xylem transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots; phloem transports sugars—the products of photosynthesis—from where they are synthesized to where they are needed, such as roots and new growth areas of leaves and fruits.

Both xylem and phloem are comprised of a variety of cell types that are specialized for transport and support. 

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