# 3rd Grade Science : Predictions of Future Motion Through Patterns

## Example Questions

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### Example Question #1 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

Ashley wants to investigate how objects move and see if she can make correct predictions. She knows she will have to observe the object's motion. She wants to see which surface material will allow a toy car to get down a ramp in the least amount of time. She tests the car on wood, plastic, carpet, and grass.

Which answer choice lists a reasonable observation that Ashley may make?

"The toy cars on the grass and carpet moved very slowly, if at all. The cars on the wood and plastic moved quickly. The car on the plastic got down the ramp in the least amount of time."

"The toy cars on the grass and carpet moved very quickly. The cars on the wood and plastic moved quickly. The car on the wood got down the ramp in the least amount of time."

"The toy cars on the grass and carpet moved very quickly. The cars on the wood and plastic moved slowly. The car on the plastic got down the ramp in the highest amount of time."

"The toy cars on the grass and carpet moved very slowly, if at all. The cars on the wood and plastic moved slowly also. The car on the wood got down the ramp in the highest amount of time."

"The toy cars on the grass and carpet moved very slowly, if at all. The cars on the wood and plastic moved quickly. The car on the plastic got down the ramp in the least amount of time."

Explanation:

Observations are critical in an investigation because scientists are recording what they see, and they measure to collect data for evidence. The observations help support the conclusion that is made. For Ashley's investigation, the most reasonable observation would be, "The toy cars on the grass and carpet moved very slowly, if at all. The cars on the wood and plastic moved quickly. The car on the plastic got down the ramp in the least amount of time.". This statement includes information about which cars move slowly, quickly and the fastest. The data collected sounds reasonable, cars on wood and plastic would move swiftly, and vehicles on grass and carpet would move slowly.

### Example Question #2 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

Students make observations of an object's motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.

True

False

True

Explanation:

The statement provided is accurate. To support conclusions, data or evidence must be collected. Analyzing data from investigations can help patterns emerge that will assist in predictions about the motion of other objects or future experiments.

### Example Question #3 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

What observation can be made regarding the motion of this object after being rolled on a curved ramp?

Each time the ball reaches the opposite side, the height reached decreases.

Each time the ball reaches the opposite side, the height reached increases and then decreases.

Each time the ball reaches the opposite side, the height reached remains the same.

Each time the ball reaches the opposite side, the height reached increases.

Each time the ball reaches the opposite side, the height reached decreases.

Explanation:

This investigation consists of dropping the ball onto one side of the ramp and then measuring the height each time the ball reaches the opposite side. When looking at the visual and the data table, it can be observed that the height decreases with each roll. The tick marks show the ball ending up in the center by the fifth roll, and the data table shows a steady decline in the numbers.

### Example Question #1 : Predictions Of Future Motion Through Patterns

Each time the ball completes a roll, it decreases in height. What increment is it reduced by with each turn?

3 inches

2 inches

4 inches

1 inch

2 inches

Explanation:

Each time the ball completes a roll, its height is reduced by 2 inches. Simple subtraction can be used to find the difference between each turn. This information can be used to make a production about future trials or the missing fifth roll.

### Example Question #5 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

Based on the data table below what could Ruben observe about the movement of the cup?

The fewer grams the marble weighed, the farther the cup moved.

The more the marble weighed, the farther the cup moved.

The more the marble weighed, the less distance the cup moved.

The more the cup weighed, the farther it moved.

The more the marble weighed, the farther the cup moved.

Explanation:

This data table organizes information and measurements collected during an investigation of an object's motion. The cup moved every time a marble was rolled into it. An accurate observation that could be made is that the heavier the marble was, the further the cup traveled. A pattern can be seen as the marble's weight increases; the distance the cup travels increases as well.

### Example Question #1 : Predictions Of Future Motion Through Patterns

How do objects move?

Objects move when a force such as gravity acts on it.

Objects move when a force such as magnetism acts on it.

Objects move when the force of another object acts on it.

None of the answer choices are correct.

Explanation:

Force can make things move, change shape, or change their speed. Some forces are direct and happen when two things touch (like pushing a friend on a swing) or other happen over a distance (such as a magnet drawing a paperclip closer). Objects only move when there is a force acting on them.

### Example Question #7 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

Annie observes an osprey carrying a large fish back to its nest. The osprey seems to be having difficulty flying. It is sinking and dipping towards the ground and has to flap hard to stay in the air. An osprey with no fish in its feet has no trouble flying to its nest.

Why is the motion of the osprey carrying the fish different than the one who is not?

The osprey with the fish has less mass. The more mass an object has, the less gravity affects it.

The osprey with the fish has a greater mass. The more mass an object has, the more gravity affects it.

The osprey with the fish has a greater mass. The more mass an object has, the less gravity affects it.

The osprey with the fish has less mass. The less mass an object has, the more gravity affects it.

The osprey with the fish has a greater mass. The more mass an object has, the more gravity affects it.

Explanation:

The osprey carrying the fish has more mass (weighs more) than the osprey that is not taking a fish back to the nest. When something has more mass, gravity has more of an effect on it. Gravity works from a distance, so even though the osprey is not touching the ground, it is still affected by gravity. Annie can observe the motion of the birds and compare the movements.

### Example Question #8 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

Heidi is throwing a baseball in the backyard. No matter how hard or high she throws the ball, it comes right back down. What force is acting on the ball and brings it back down to the ground?

Acceleration

Gravity

Static

Velocity

Gravity

Explanation:

The reason that Heidi cannot keep the ball in the air and it keeps falling back down to Earth is because of gravity. NASA explains what gravity is, "Why do things fall when you throw them or drop them? The answer is gravity: an invisible force that pulls objects toward each other. Earth's gravity is what keeps you on the ground and what makes things fall." It is because of this that the ball returns to Earth and does not stay in the air.

### Example Question #9 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

Mallory went to a baseball game with her cousins. She was amazed to see how far the players could hit the ball and that it even went into the bleacher seats sometimes! She saw a player bunt the ball rather than hit it with a full swing, and the ball did not go far. Why was there a difference in the distance the two baseballs traveled?

When players hit the ball with a full swing, they apply less force, so the ball does not travel as far as it would with a bunt.

None of the answer choices are correct.

When a player bunts the ball they apply less force so the ball does not travel as far as it would with a full swing.

The player who bunted the ball must have been very weak and not able to hit the ball into the bleachers.

When a player bunts the ball they apply less force so the ball does not travel as far as it would with a full swing.

Explanation:

When a player takes a full swing and hits a baseball, they are applying a significant amount of force to the ball and changing the direction and speed of the ball. A bunt is not a full swing, and there is less force applied. When less energy is applied to an object, its motion will not be less than an object that is hit with a greater force.

### Example Question #10 : Make Observations Of An Object's Motion

DJ notices that when he pushes his little brother on the swing at the park, the swing moves higher. He stops pushing, and slowly his brother comes to a stop. Why did the motion of the swing change?

The force being applied was stopped, so the swing moved faster.

The force being applied was increased, so the swing stopped moving.

The force being applied was stopped, so the swing stopped moving.

The force being applied was increased, so the swing moved faster.