# 1st Grade Science : Construct an evidence-based account

## Example Questions

### Example Question #3 : Physical Science

Which of the following objects provides evidence that humans can make light sources?

Lightning

The Sun

Flashlight

Flashlight

Explanation:

A flashlight is a human-made object, so this gives us evidence or proof that humans can make light sources. The Sun and lightning are both natural sources of light, so nature, not humans, created them.

### Example Question #4 : Physical Science

Construct an evidence-based claim to answer the question below.

What illuminates this birthday cake?

Candles illuminate this birthday cake because they are a light source. Without the candles, you could not see the cake. I can tell the candles are the only light source.

This cake is not illuminated. If it were illuminated, it would not be able to be seen. I can tell because illuminate means to be in darkness.

Light from a lamp illuminates this birthday cake because a lamp is a light source. The light is coming from above, so it is from a lamp. I can tell the lamp is the only light source.

Candles illuminate this birthday cake because they are a light source. Without the candles, you could not see the cake. I can tell the candles are the only light source.

Explanation:

The candles on the top illuminate this cake. From the picture, we can observe that the only source of light is coming from the candles, and without them, it would be dark. The background of the picture is dark, so there are no other sources of light.

### Example Question #5 : Physical Science

Tina took a flashlight with her and explored a dark cave. She couldn't see anything but heard strange noises. Once the cave was illuminated with the flashlight, she saw there were tons of snakes! The flashlight went out, and it was dark again. She ran towards the light at the entrance of the cave and went home.

Which two sentences provide evidence that a light source is needed to see in darkness?

She couldn't see anything but heard strange noises. Once the cave was illuminated with the flashlight, she saw there were tons of snakes!

Tina took a flashlight with her and explored a dark cave. She couldn't see anything but heard strange noises.

Once the cave was illuminated with the flashlight, she saw there were tons of snakes! The flashlight went out, and it was dark again.

Once the cave was illuminated with the flashlight, she saw there were tons of snakes! The flashlight went out, and it was dark again.

Explanation:

The sentences that provide evidence of a light source are necessary are, "Once the cave was illuminated with the flashlight, she saw there were tons of snakes! The flashlight went out, and it was dark again.". These sentences explain that once the flashlight illuminated or light up the cave, she could see the snakes. It also states that it went dark again when the flashlight went out. This shows readers that the flashlight is where the light came from and was needed to see in the darkness.

### Example Question #6 : Physical Science

Kelly wants to look for bugs that only come out at night. She looks around and finds an old lantern to bring with her. When she gets outside, it is so dark she can't even see her feet! She turns on the lantern and can see all the bugs crawling on the roots of a tree. She records what she sees and goes inside.

Which two sentences provide evidence that light is needed to see things in the dark?

Kelly wants to look for bugs that only come out at night. She looks around and finds an old lantern to bring with her.

When she gets outside, it is so dark she can't even see her feet! She turns on the lantern and can see all the bugs crawling on the roots of a tree.

She turns on the lantern and can see all the bugs crawling on the roots of a tree. She records what she sees and goes inside.

When she gets outside, it is so dark she can't even see her feet! She turns on the lantern and can see all the bugs crawling on the roots of a tree.

Explanation:

Providing evidence is like giving proof of something or for something. In this short passage, two sentences show us how light is needed to illuminate and see objects in the dark. "When she gets outside, it is so dark she can't even see her feet! She turns on the lantern and can see all the bugs crawling on the roots of a tree." The first sentence lets us know it is dark, and she cannot see anything, not even her feet. In the second sentence, she illuminates the area around her with the lantern so she can see the bugs and roots. These sentences show that light is necessary to see.

### Example Question #7 : Physical Science

Andrew was trying to look down the end of a very long sidewalk to see if his friend was coming, but it was too dark to see. He ran back home and looked for something to bring with him to help him see. Which item should he grab and why?

Lightbulb; it illuminates rooms in a house so it should help him see in the dark outside

Candle; it illuminates objects (and people) in the dark, so it will help him see a short distance

Flashlight; it illuminates objects (and people) in the dark, so it will help him see a long distance

Flashlight; it illuminates objects (and people) in the dark, so it will help him see a long distance

Explanation:

Andrew should choose the flashlight if he wants to get an item to help him see. A lightbulb will not work without electricity, so holding it up outside will do nothing. A candle will give off light to reflect off objects but only for a short distance, and he is on the end of a very long sidewalk. A flashlight would help him see the long-distance that is needed. It will reflect light off of the objects in the dark so he can see what is around him and if his friend is coming.

### Example Question #8 : Physical Science

Which statement best explains why fireworks help us to see at night?

Fireworks help us see at night because they are beautiful and colorful. Things that are pretty are easy to see.

Fireworks help us see at night because they are a source of light. They illuminate the sky and other objects.

Fireworks help us see at night because they absorb light from other things.

Fireworks help us see at night because they are a source of light. They illuminate the sky and other objects.

Explanation:

Humans can only see objects when they are illuminated by something that gives off or produces light. Fireworks do both of these things, so they help to light up the night sky and other objects around them. While waiting for a firework show, you may notice it is dark and hard to see the people around you; when the fireworks explode, you can see the people around you more clearly.

### Example Question #1 : Illumination Of Objects In Darkness

I am only able to see in the dark when I have a light to help me. I can use a flashlight, candle, or turn on a lightbulb.

False

True

True

Explanation:

This is a true statement. Humans have limited vision in the darkness; we need a light to help us. All of the items listed would be helpful in the dark. This claim is based in fact.

### Example Question #2 : Illumination Of Objects In Darkness

Natalie could not see into the dark closet because she wasn't trying hard enough. If she wanted to see in the dark, I think she just needs to practice.

Is this statement based on evidence, or is it an opinion? How do you know?

Opinion; uses the phrase "I think"

Evidence; gives data to prove her point

You cannot tell if this is an opinion or evidence-based.

Opinion; uses the phrase "I think"

Explanation:

This statement is based on an opinion. The phrasing "I think" is a big clue that this is not an evidence-based account. If it were, there would be facts, data, observations, and no personal thoughts.

### Example Question #3 : Illumination Of Objects In Darkness

Illumination is necessary to see objects in the dark. I tested this by looking into a dark room with no lights and a dark room with different light sources (candles, flashlights, and lanterns). When I used a light source, I could see what was in the room. When I did not use a light source, I could not see.

Is this statement evidence-based, or is it an opinion? How do you know?

Evidence; no mention of personal thoughts, includes observations

Opinion; the author stated personal thoughts and did not include any evidence

You cannot tell from the statement if it is evidence-based or an opinion.

Evidence; no mention of personal thoughts, includes observations

Explanation:

This statement is evidence-based. The author includes information about testing their theory with different light sources and used a scientific process to do the tests. There is no mention of personal thoughts or opinions.

### Example Question #4 : Illumination Of Objects In Darkness

To see objects in the dark, I must use a light source to illuminate it. I know this because I performed a set of investigations and collected data. The data showed that when I went into a dark room, and my brother held up a toy, I could not see what it was. When I used a flashlight, I could see the toy.

Is this statement evidence-based, or is it an opinion? How do you know?

Opinion; the writer included personal opinions in the statement

Neither; there is no way to tell if this is evidence-based or an opinion

Evidence-based; the writer used data to support his/her conclusion